r*-^ ! r
m --jf • — ■?-
*.-; — w
RACES OF MAN
And Their Distribution
A. C, HADDON, Sc.D., F.R.S.,
UNIVERSITY READER IN ETHNOLOGY,
Frederick A. Stokes Company,
reduction ... ... ••• ... ix
e Basis of Classification ... ... ... 1
Skin-Colour, 2 ; Hair, 2; Stature, 3; Nose, 3;
Face, 4 ; Head-Form, 4.
flnitions of race, people, tribe, nation, ... 6
Classification of Mankind ... ... ... 7,8
ii3 Main Physical Characters and Distribution
of the Ulotrichi: — ... ... 9-12
Andamanese, 9 ; Semang, 9 ; Negritoes of the
Philippines or Aetas, 9 ; Negrilloes, 9 : Bush-
men, 10; Hottentots, 10; Negroes: Western
Sudanese or Nigritian, Eastern Sudanese or
Nilotic Negroes, 11 ; Bantu, 11 ; Papuans, 11
e Main Physical Characters and Distribution
of the Cymotrichi: — ... ... 12-16
Veddas, 12 ; Jungle Tribes of the Deccan, 12 ;
Sakai, 12 ; Toala, 13 ; Australians, 13 ; Dravid-
ians, 13; Ethiopians or Hamites, 13; Indo-
Afghans, 13 ; Indonesians, 14 ; Polynesians, 14 ;
Semites, 14 ; Mediterraneans, 15 ; Nordics or
Teutonic Race, 15 ; Ainu, 15 ; Alpines or Alpine
Race, 15 : Cevenole, Dinaric or Adriatic,
Anatolian or Armenian, 16.
(3 *lain Physical Characters and Distribution
of the Leiotrichi : — ... ... 16-19
Palseasiatics or Eastern Siberians, 16;
Tungus, 16; Koreans, 17; Mongols, 17; Turki, 17;
Ugrians, 17; Indo-Chinese, Pareaeans, or
Southern Mongols, 18; Eskimo, 18; Palaeo-
Amerinds, 19 ; Patagonians, 19 ; Southern
Amerinds, 19 ; Central Amerinds, 19 : North-
™~»A~-.« A «*»•*< r» /-la 1Q. Wnr+hom AmprlnHk. 1Q_
W. ' >•;;•*.■ •'.*. Contents
* * • • • • t • *
Distribution of Races and Peoples according to
Areas!—- •«• ••■ ... .., ^u-j-l^
General account of the distribution and migra-
tions of the Oceanians, 20; The Ethnography
of the Australians, 22; — Papuans ana
Melanesians, 24 ; — Polynesians, 28.
General account of the distribution and migra-
tions of the Africans, 31 ; The Ethnography
of the Negrilloes, 34; — Bushmen, 34;
—Hottentots, 35; —Negroes, 36; — Bantus, 38
General account of the distribution of tht
Europeans, 40 ; Physical characters and racial
elements in the populations of Scandinavia, 41 ;
— British Isles, 41 ; — France, 41 ; — Switzer-
land, 42; — Belguim, 42 ; — Netherlands, 43;
— Germany, 43; — Austria, 43; — Hungary, 43"
— Russia, 44; — Balkan States, 45; — Greece, 46
—Italy, 46 ; —Spain, 47.
General account of the distribution and migra-
tions of the Asiatics, 48 ; The Ethnography cf
the Ural-Altaians, 52; — India, 56; — Assam, 65:
— Burma, 68 ; — the Negritoes of Asia, 70
— Malay Peninsula, 74 ; — Borneo, 76.
Classification of the Amerinds, 79 ; Th
Ethnography of the Eskimo, 80 ; — North
Pacific Tribes, 81 ; —Tribes of the Pacifi :
Coast, 83 ; — Tribes of the Great Plains, 85
— Northern Tribes of the Eastern Woodlands, 87 ,
—Tribes of the South-west, 88: —Centra;
America, 89 ; — The Cordillera of the Andes, 90;
— The Plains of the Amazon and the Orinoco,
with Guiana, 93 ; — Eastern and Southern
Brazil, 97; — The Pa- ~ ' "
Tierra del Fuego, 99.
Glossary ... ••• ••• •••
LIST OF PLATES.
Plate I. — Frontispiece, A Jicarilla Apache,
Athapascan stock. Note the typical profile and
lank hair. He is wearing a war head-dress with
a beaded frontlet and silver earrings. There are
four painted lines over the cheek-bone.
Plate II. — Two Koiari Men of the village of
Makabiri ; typical, ulotrichous, bearded Papuans
of the central district of British New Guinea ... 11
(a) Height l'692m. (5ft. 6£in.), cephalic index 77*2.
(b) „ 1 '657m. (5ft. 4fcin.), „ „ 70
Plate III. — An Arab (Semite) ... ... ... 14
Plate IV.— An Ainu of the Saru river valley, Yezo.
Note the non- Mongolian features, abundant
cymotrichous hair on head and face He is
wearing the ceremonial fillet, from which two
squares of cloth depend on each side, and a
wooden carving of a bear's head is attached to
the front ... ... ... ... 15
Plate V. — An Old Chinese Man and a Young Boy ;
the latter exhibits pronounced "Mongolian"
features. Nanking ... ... ... 18
viii. List of Plates
Plate VI. — A Northern Australian, with curly hair,
a broad nose, through the septum of which is
inserted a long bone (probably a wing bone of a
wild swan) ; the body and arms are decorated
with cicatrices and cheloids ... ... 2$
Plate VII. — A Maori Chief (Polynesian), whose
face is decorated with moko, or fine grooves
chipped into the skin, pigment being inserted
during the operation of cutting. In true
tattooing the design is formed by minute
punctures ... ... ... ... 28
Plate VIII. — A Negrillo, or African Pygmy, from
the Kasai Valley, Congo. Note the ulotrichous
hair, broad flattish nose, and thick lips ; the face
and head are broad ... ... ... 34
Plate IX. — An Eskimo. Note the straight hair, and
greater development of the " Mongolian fold "
in the left eye ... ... ... ... 80
Plate X. — Two Patagonians, one holding a lasso
and the other a bolas; the fillet is very
characteristic ... ... ... ... 100
Plates I, IV, VIII, IX and X are from photographs taken at
the St. Louis Exposition, 1904, by the staff of the Field
Museum of Natural History, Chicago, and given to me by my
friend, Dr. G. A. Dorsey, with full permission to reproduce
Plate II is from a photograph taken on the Cambridge
Expedition to Torres Straits, etc., 1898.
Plates III, VI, and VII are from purchased photographs.
Plate V is from a photograph taken by my friend, Mr. J.
It is an extremely difficult matter to give in a very
short space a well-balanced account of the races and
peoples of mankind, for it is impossible to deal adequately
with the subject in a small book ; and, furthermore, our
information is far from complete. The present effort
must necessarily be open to grave criticism from many
This little work falls naturally into two parts. The
first deals with some of the physical characters employed
in classification, and a grouping of the main stocks
according to those characters, together with their
geographical distribution. The effects of European
colonisation are entirely omitted.
The second part is devoted to a consideration of the
five large areas, Oceania, Africa, Europe, Asia, and
merica. Each section is preceded by a sketch of the
stribution of the races and peoples in the area, and a
pothetical sketch of some of the larger movements of
pulation that may have taken place. Then follows a
ief account of some of the more interesting peoples of
at area. The selection was not easy, and perhaps too
much space has been given to the more backward
peoples, but the difficulty of dealing in a satisfactory
manner with the cultured peoples is very great, and the
reader can find detailed information in more ambitious
works. It will be noted that the treatment of Europe
is very different from that accorded to the other
continents, as it was felt that a statement of racial
elements in the population would be more generally
useful than an imperfect summary of national
Those who wish to advance further in this study
should consult Professor A. H. Keane's " Man, Past and
Present," "Ethnology," and "The World's Peoples";
Dr. J. Deniker's "The Races of Man"; and Professor
F. Ratzel's "The History of Mankind" (English
The omission of references is rightly open to serious
criticism, but it was felt that they would have to be so
numerous as to unduly increase the size of the book.
The short Bibliography at the end will, however, indicate
to the serious student some of the more important books
Nearly all the special terms employed are explained
in the text on their first occurrence, but for the
convenience of the reader a short Glossary has been
The Races of Man.
THE BASIS OP CLASSIFICATION
Various methods are employed in the attempt to group
together different human communities and to distinguish
between the races of mankind : these may be briefly de-
scribed as physical, cultural and linguistic. The fact that
languages may be readily borrowed by one people from
another, renders linguistics unsatisfactory as a basis for
classification. It certainly proves the contact of peoples,
but does not necessarily imply racial affinity. We must
therefore rank it as a subsidiary method. A classification
based on culture may be of interest to the sociologist, but
it is obviously one which can have no prime importance in
regard to genetic relationship, though it may indicate the
influence of peoples upon one another. There remain,
therefore, the physical characters of different peoples
upon which, as a foundation, a classification of mankind
can most satisfactorily be erected.
The physical characters which can be employed in the
grouping or discrimination of peoples are mainly of two
kinds ; those which are readily apparent, and those which
require more minute observation, usually with the assist-
ance of instruments. The most obvious of the superficial
characters, such as stature, skin-colour, character of the
hair, shape of the nose, and the like, have been recognised
from time immemorial. Practically all peoples look upon
their own physical characters as constituting the normal
type, and consequently regard those that differ from
them as being strange, and even repulsive. This is
. . • «
2 The Races of Man
proved by the frequency with which a people will class
itself by a name which signifies " men," thereby implying
that they only are men, while other peoples are designa-
ted by them under nicknames, names of localities, or of
some peculiar habit.
Skin-Colour. — Very obvious is the colour of the skin.
Among the ancient Egyptians, the artists who decorated
the royal tombs at Thebes (xix. dynasty) distinguished
between four races: — (1) the Egyptians, whom they
painted red; (2) the Asiatics or Semites, who were
coloured yellow ; (3) the Southerns or Negroes, who were
naturally painted black; and (4) the Westerns or North-
erns, white. We ourselves speak loosely of white men,
yellow men, black men or " niggers," red men, and so
forth. The coloration of the skin is a character of some
importance, but we do not know accurately to what
extent it can in time be influenced by climatic or other
conditions. In the north of Europe we certainly do find
a fair-skinned population, but the Greenland Eskimo
has a brownish-yellow complexion, generally tinged with
red. The very dark Negro of the equatorial forest does
not appear to live under conditions very different from
those of the pale yellow Punan of Borneo, nor are the
conditions of existence dissimilar for the dark Fijian and
the relatively fair Samoan. It does not seem possible at
present to distinguish the relative importance of race and
environment with regard to pigmentation. Perhaps when
once fixed, pigmentation is a fairly constant character.
Hair. — On the whole, the hair appears to be the most
useful character in classifying the main groups of mankind.
Practically everywhere outside Europe and parts of
Northern Asia the hair is black in colour, often with a
reddish, brownish, or bluish tinge. In Europe we have
the greatest diversity, not only in colour, but in character.
The three main varieties of hair are the straight, wavy,
and so-called woolly. The first is lank hair that usually
The Basis of Classification 3
falls straight down, occasionally with a tendency to be-
come wavy; it is apt to be coarse in texture. The
second is undulating, or may form a long curve or
imperfect spiral from one end to the other, or may be
rolled spirally to form clustering rings or curls a centi-
metre (f in.) or more in diameter. The third variety is
characterised by numerous, close, often interlocking,
spirals 1 — 9 mm. in diameter. These three varieties are
now termed leiotrichous, cymotrichous, and ulotrichous.
It must be remembered, however, that all intermediate
conditions occur between these three types.
Stature. — A commonly recognised distinction is that
of stature; but though it is true that there are certain
peoples who can be described as tall, medium, and
short, or even as pygmy, the stature is apt to be very
variable within certain limits among the same people.
The average human stature appears to be about 1*675 m.
(5ft. 6in.). Those peoples who are 1*725 m. (5ft. 8in.) or
more in height are said to be tall; those below 1*625 m.
(5ft. 4in.) are short, while those who fall below 1*500 m.
(4ft. 11 in.) are now usually termed pygmies.
Nose. — A feature that has always attracted attention
is the nose. It may be prominent or flat, and relatively
to its length (i.e. from the root to the angle with the lip)
the wings may be broad (platyrrhine), moderate (mesor-
rhine), or narrow (leptorrhine).
We have an interesting example of the employment of
the above characters as a means of race-discrimination
in the Vedas, which were composed by the poets of
the Aryan invaders of Northern India about 1500 B.C.
The word varna, which is now employed to signify caste,
is used in the dual number, "two colours," being the
white of the Aryans and the black of the Dasyus, that is,
of the Dravidian aborigines, who are elsewhere called
" noseless/ " black-skinned," " unholy," " excommuni-
cated ; other texts dwell on their low stature, coarse
4 The Races of Man
features, and their voracious appetite. It is hardly an
exaggeration to say that from these sources there might
be compiled a fairly accurate anthropological definition
of certain Dravidian tribes of to-day.
Face. — The lower part jjj^ the face may project con-
siderably (progn athous ) — this is what is termed a " low "
feature, or there may be no projection of the face
(orthognathous). These characters are dependent on
the size of thej^ws. A flat and retreating forehead is
also a " low " feature, but a somewhat bulbous forehead
such as is characteristic of Negroes does not necessarily
imply high intellectual ability. A straight .nose, and one
in which the root is only slightly marked, so that the line
of the forehead passes gently into that of the nose,
constitutes the classical nose of Greek statues. As a
matter of fact, this feature was seized upon and ex-
aggerated by certain Greek sculptors, the contours of the
nose and forehead being alike falsified, so as to give
increased nobility to the expression. The majesty of the
brow of Zeus, the wielder of the destinies of men, was
due to an overstepping of human contours, as these in
their turn, in the dim ages of the past, had passed beyond
the low outline of the brute.
Head- Form. — Less obvious is the jshape of the head.
Looked at from above, some heads are distinctly narrow,
while others are very broad. The nature of the hair and
the fashion of dressing it often tend to obscure this, so
for a satisfactory description recourse must be had to
measurements. The measurements are rarely used by
themselves, but are employed to give a ratio of the
breadth to the length, the latter being taken at. 100.
Thus those heads in which the ratio of the breadth of
the skull to its length falls below 75 are termed dolicho-
cephalic or narrow-headed, those between 75 and 80
mesaticephalic or medium-headed, those exceeding 80
brachycephalic or br
The Basis of Classification 5
groups are recognised, the dolichocephalic —78, and the
brachycephalic 78 + . When dealing with the skull only,
it is better to speak of the cranial index, and to reserve
the term cephalic index for the head of the living;
roughly speaking, the cephalic index is two units higher
than the cranial index. The height of the head is a
character of some importance ; some heads are high and
well curved, while others are low and flattened.
There are many other characters which are employed
by physical anthropologists which necessitate careful
measurements on the living or on the skeleton, and the
observation of certain details of anatomical structure;
for these the reader is referred to special works dealing
with physical anthropology.
Although, as a matter of convenience, the range of
the variations of any given feature is divided up into
groups to which definite names are applied, it must be
clearly understood that these demarcations are perfectly
arbitrary, and are employed merely to facilitate compari-
son and classification. Man is a very variable animal,
and being able to travel long distances, a considerable
mixture between different peoples has taken place ; hence
it becomes extremely difficult in some cases to determine
whether the given modifications from the average type are
due to the inherent variability of man, to reaction to the
conditions under which he is living or has recently lived, or
to actual race-mixture. These considerations necessitate
caution in forming an opinion concerning the affinities of
any people, and at the same time they demonstrate the
extreme difficulty there is in framing a consistent classi-
fication of mankind.
Unfortunately there is a lack of uniformity in the
employment of us such as race tribe, and for the
minor divisions of a community, nor does it seem possible
6 The Races of Man
at the present time to bring all observers on these topics
into line. It therefore becomes necessary to explain
briefly the manner in which such terms are employed in
this book. As to the term race, it really seems impossible
to frame a satisfactory definition. It is best to confine
its use as far as possible to the main divisions of mankind
which have important physical characters in common,
Thus all woolly-haired peoples (Ulotrichi) may be said to
belong to one race; but usually the Negrilloes, Bushmen,
Negroes, Papuans, and others, are spoken of as races.
The Jews, although not of absolutely pure origin, are
generally, but from this point of view erroneously, spoken
of as a race; again there is no such thing as an Bnglish or
an Irish race.
A people is a community inhabiting any given area
independent of race. For example, the Andaman
Islanders are a people of pure race, while the people of
Ceylon belong to various races. In some cases, where
racial mixture is suspected, it is better to employ this
term rather than "race"; thus it is preferable to speak
of the Melanesian peoples rather than of the Melanesian
A tribe may be defined as a group of a simple kind
occupying a circumscribed area, having a common
language, common government, and a common action in
A nation is a complex group which may consist of
various tribes or groups, speaking different languages,
but united under a common government for external
affairs. The constituents of a nation usually, however,
speak the same language.
A Classification of Mankind
A CLASSIFICATION OF MANKIND
If we accept the character of the hair as a basis of
classification, we may divide mankind into the following
groups : — i
Negritoes. (Andamanese, Semang of the
Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, Pygmies
of the Philippines), and Negrilloes of the
equatorial forests of Africa.
Short and yellow-skinned :
Bushmen of South Africa.
Hottentots of South Africa.
Short or tall, and dark-skinned :
Negroes and Bantu of Africa.
Papuans and Melanesians of the West
CYMOTRiCHi^are divisible into several main divisions
according to their skin-colour; the great majority are
Dolichocephalic: -whMc/w Imoh\ ■
Melanous, or dark group :
Pre-Dravidians: Veddas of Ceylon; Kadirs,
Kurumbas, Irulas, and other Jungle
Tribes of the Deccan ; Sakai of the
Malay Peninsula and Sumatra; Toalas
of Celebes ; Australians.
Dravidians of the Deccan.
Ethiopians or Hamites of North-East
i ' u
8 The Races of Man
- Intermediate shades:
I ndo- Afghans.
Tawny white :
Mediterraneans of South Europe and North
Nordics of North Europe.
Mesaticephalic : w-sdU His*
Ainu of Japan.
Brachycephalic : thecal Uj&+2
Alpines (with Anatolian and Cevenole
Leiotrichi. The straight-haired groups of mankind
are mainly confined to Asia and America.
Brachycephalic : 0^€- !*£<?<?(
Ural-Altaians : Palaeasiatics, Tungus, Ko-
reans, Mongols, together with the modified
Ugrians and Turki; Indo-Chinese: Tibetans,
Himalayans, Chinese, most of the natives
of further India and Indo-China, including
the Proto- Malays.
Dolichocephalic American Indians:
Mesaticephalic or Brachycephalic American
Indians : '^*<**.
Patagonians, Southern Amerinds, Central
Amerinds, North - Western Amerinds,
A linear arrangement, such as is practically unavoidable
in a book, can very rarely indicate biological affinities; to
illustrate these a two- or three-dimensional arrangement
is necessary. Therefore, a tabulation, such as the above,
A Classification of Mankind
must not be regarded as representing all the relations
between certain, groups.
The Oloti*5chi are divisible as follows: —
The Pygmy Ulotrichi are : —
Andamanese : Frizzly black hair with a reddish tinge;
very dark skin; stature about l*485m. (4ft. lOfin.),*
with well-proportioned Jsody and small hands; head
small and Dractfycephalic (index 82)* ; face broad at
cheekbones; lips full but not everted ; chin small but
not retreating; nose much sunken at the root but
straight and small; eyes prominent. Andaman
Semang: These are closely allied to the Andamanese
They have crisp woolly, brownish black hair; dark
chocolate brown skin, approximating to black;
stature qf/l;49m. (4ft, lOfin.) and are sturdily built;
head mesaticephatic (index 78-9) ; round face ; full
lips ; short flattened nose ; widely open eyes. Malay
Peninsula and East Sumatra.
Negritoes of the Philippines, or A etas : Woolly black hair,
sometimes tinged with red. The men often have
abundant growth on face, chest, and limbs ; skin of a
dark sooty-brown colour; stature l'474m. (4ft. 10in.),
the body being slender.and the/arms long; the head
is large in proportion and mesaticephalic (index 80) ;
forehead broad and rounded ; jaw and teeth pro-
jecting; lips thick and the under one everted; nose
broad at nostrils and sunken at root; eyes deep-set
and wide apart.
Negrilloes : Hair very short and woolly, usually of a dark
rusty brown colour, sometimes very dark; face hair
* The figures of the stature and cephalic index given in this
table are averages of males. There is a considerable range in
most cases, but the data here presented will serve to give a
fairly correct idea of the raciai types.
10 The Races of Man
variable, but the body usually covered with a light,
downy hair ; skin reddish or yellowish brown, some-
times very dark; stature from l'378m. to l*452m.
(4ft. 44-in. .to 4ft. 9^in.) ; sometimes steatopygic :*i_
head mesaticephalic (index 79) ; sometimes prog-
nathic; lips usually thin, and the upper one long;
nose broad and exceptionally long ; eyes protuberant.
Equatorial forests of Africa.
The short, yellow-skinned Ulotrichi are: —
Bushmen : Short, black, woolly hair, which becomes
rolled up into little knots; skin yellow; stature
l'529m. (5ft. Jin.); steatopygia is especially marked
in women ; hands and feet very small ; very small
skull, markedly low in crown, dolichocephalic (index
76) ; straight face with prominent cheekbones and
bulging forehead ; nose extremely broad, the Bush-
men being the most platyrrhine of all mankind; no
lobe to the ear. Now mainly confined to the
Hottentots : A cross between Bushmen and Hamites or
Bantus, in which the characters of the first pre-
dominate; mongrel peoples have also arisen, mainly
from Boer- Hottentot parentage. Short, woolly,
black hair, with tendency to become rolled up into
little knots ; skin brownish yellow, sometimes tinged
with grey or red; stature l-604m. » (5ft. 3in.) ;
tendency to steatopygia; head small and dolicho-
cephalic (index 74) ; face prognathic, with small chin
and prominent cheekbones. South-west Africa.
* Steatopygia is the name given to a large development of
fatty tissue in the buttocks ; it is characteristic of some of the
more primitive races of Africa, more especially among the
Bushmen, but it must not be confounded with the general
development of fat which occurs among other African peoples.
Steatopygia also occurred among some of the prehistoric
cave-dwellers of France.
A Classification of Mankind 11
The short or tall, dark-skinned Ulotrichi are: —
Negroes. The true Negroes are divisible into two main
stocks : —
Western Sudanese or Nigritian : Hair frizzly; dark
brown or black skin; stature 1*73 m. (5ft. 8in.);
burly, short-legged and long-armed; dolichoce-
phalic (index 74-75); frequently prognathous;
forehead often bulging ; thick, and often everted
lips; platyrrhine. Guinea Coast and, originally,
tropical Africa. '
Eastern Sudanese or Nilotic Negroes : Very dark skin,
sometimes with reddish tinge; tall and slim,
with long legs ; narrow, elongated head ; retreat-
ing forehead ; everted lips. Sudan and upper
Bantu : The numerous peoples of Central and Southern
Africa who speak Bantu languages present a great
variety of types. They are a Negro people mixed
with Hamitic and other elements. Hair uniformly
of the ordinary Negro type; stature 1*64-1*715 m.
(5ft 4-|-7^-in.) ; dolichocephalic — there is a brachioce-
phalic element with lower stature, 1-594 m. (5ft. 2in.);
fatty deposits are of frequent occurence, more fre-
quently among the women ; usually skin less dark,
stature lower, head less elongated, prognathism less
marked, forehead flatter, nose generally more promi-
nent and narrower than in the true Negroes. Africa,
south of 4 deg. N. Lat., but including the Cameroons
and excluding the Great Rift Valley plateau and the
extreme south-west of Africa.
Papuans : Black, woolly hair, often of considerable
length; dark chocolate skin; usually of medium
stature, but variable ; dolichocephalic (index 73) ;
prognathous; platyrrhine, nose sometimes aquiline.
New Guinea, and originally throughout Melanesia,
Australia and Tasmania.
12 The Races of Man
Melanesians : More variable than Papuans, and have
sometimes curly, and even wavy hair (doubtless due
to racial mixture) ; skin often lighter than Papuans,
being chocolate or occasionally copper-coloured;
stature of men ranges from 1\ 0-1*78 m. (4ft. 11 in. to
5ft. 10in.), the predominating heights are from 1*56 m.
(5ft. liin.) to 1-6 m. (5ft. 3in.) ; cephalic index 67-85,
but dolichocephaly prevails generally, though brachy-
• cephaly may locally predominate ; nose platyrrhine,
sometimes aquiline, sometimes straight or flattened.
Bismarck Archipelago to New Caledonia, Fiji, some
parts of New. Guinea.
The Cyreiotnichi are divisible into several main
groups, according to their skin colour ; the great majority
Dolichocephalic Cymotrichi, with dark brown to nearly
black skin are : —
Veddas : These aboriginals of Ceylon are perhaps the
most primitive survivals of a Pre-Dravidian race.
Their hair is long, black, coarse, wavy or curly; skin
dark brown; stature l*533m. (5ft. Jin.); smallest
human skull, extremely dolichocephalic (index 70-5);
orthognathic, broad face, with thin lips and poin
chin; forehead slightly retreating, with brow arches
pointed; nose depressed at root, almost platyrrhine.
Jungle Tribes of the Deccan : There are various jungle
tribes in the Deccan, such as the Kadirs, Kurumbas,
and [rulas, which are characterised by short stature,
generally about 1*601 m. (5ft. Sin.) or less, dolicho-
cephaly, and marked platyrrhiny.
Sakai : Perhaps belonging here are the Sakai, jungle
tribes of the Malay Peninsula and East Sumatra.
Hair long, wavy or curly, black with reddish tinge;
skin yellowish brown to dark brown; stature l*504m.
(4ft. 11^-in.); mesaticephalic (index 78;; orthog-
nathous; nose mesorrhine, bordering on platyrrhine.
A Classification of Mankind 13
These appear to have mixed with other peoples, but
are now regarded as mainly of Pre-Dravidian origin.
Toala : Hair very wavy and even curly; skin darkish
brown; stature l-575m. (5ft. 2in.) ; they have low
brachycephaly (index 82) ; face somewhat short ;
thick lips ; strongly platyrrhine nose. South-west
peninsula of Celebes. These people seem to be
undoubtedly of Pre-Dravidian origin, though some
mixture has since taken place.
Australians : A fairly uniform people, probably of mainly
Pre-Dravidian stock. Curly hair; skin dark
chocolate brown; stature l-67m. (5ft. 5|in.); doli-
chocephalic (index 72); prognathous; platyrrhine.
Some of the Australians, at any rate, appear to have
mixed with a Papuan population that preceded them
Dravidians : This is a general term for the short dark
peoples of the Deccan. The hair is plentiful, with
an occasional tendency to curl ; stature usually
l-626m. (5ft. 4in.); dolichocephalic (index 74-76);
typically mesorrhine. Some Dravidians exhibit
traces of a Pre-Dravidian strain.
Ethiopians or Hamitcs of North- East Africa include the
Ancient and Modern Egyptians (in part), Beja, Galla,
Somali, Abyssinians (with Arab mixture) ; mixed
with Negroes are the Zandeh (Niarn Niam), Fulah,
Masai, etc. Perhaps this is a very ancient admixture
of Semite with Negro. Hair usually frizzly; red-
brown skin ; stature 1-67-1 -708 m. (5ft. 5fin.-7£in.) ;
mesaticephalic (index 75-78) ; face elongated ; not
prognathous; lips thin or slightly turned; nose
usually prominent, leptorrhine to mesorrhine.
Dolichocephalic Cymotrichi of intermediate shades
are : —
Indo- Afghans : Dark brunets with a complexion of a
very light transparent brown ; stature moderate,
14 *oes of Man
^ in certain Rajputs to 1*748 m. (5ft. 8f in.);
^ephalic ; face long; features regular; nose
-light or convex, narrow and finely cut.
utiesians : Throughout the East Indian Archipelago
and extending into further India is a race with undu-
lating black hair, often tinged with red; tawny skin,
often rather light; low stature of 1-54-1.57 m. (5frT
J-lJin.) ; mesaticephalic head (index 76-78), probably i
originally dolichocephalic; cheekbones sometimes
projecting; nose often flattened, sometimes concave.
It is difficult to isolate this Indonesian type as it has
almost everywhere been mixed with a brachycephalic
Proto-Malay stock, but the M units of Borneo (cranial
index 73) are probably typical.
Polynesians : These may be regarded as a mixed variety
of the Indonesian race which has greatly increased
in stature, 1-72 m. (5ft. 7fin.); dolichocephaly and
mesaticephaly are widely spread in Polynesia, but
there are brachycephalic centres in Tonga, the
Marquesas and the Hawaiian Islands; the broaden-
ing of the head is probably due to an early mixture
with a Proto-Malay stock; nose prominent, some-
times convex. This variety extends from Hawaii to
New Zealand, and from Samoa to Easter Island.
Of tawny white complexion are: — ■
Semites : Jet-black hair ; stature 1-625- 1*65 m. (5ft. 4-5in.)
dolichocephalic (index 70) ; elongated face, fine
regular features ; straight or aquiline nose ; the most
pure type, with a narrow straight nose, is met with
among the Arabs of South Arabia. The Jews are a
mixed people who may have acquired their so-called
"Jewish nose" from the Assyrioids or Hittites; the
latter are now probably represented by the Armen-
ians. Their original home was in South-Western
Asia, more especially in Arabia ; but they have
wandered afar, mainly into North Africa.
[Races of Man, p. 14.
Races of Man, p .15
A Classification of Mankind 15
Mediterraneans : Hair brown or black, with fair represen-
tatives about the Atlas Mountains ; stature about
1*63 m. (5ft. 4Jin.); dolichocephalic (index 72-76);
face oval; nose leptorrhine or mesorrhine; eyes
generally very dark. The Ancient Egyptians (in
part), the Libyans, Iberians, Liguriansand Pelasgians,
and the dolichocephalic (cranial index 73-74), neo-
lithic inhabitants of Western Europe and the British
Islands belonged to this stock. 'Their present
distribution is mainly round the shores of the
The fairest of all peoples are : —
Nordics or " Teutonic Race " : Yellow, very light brown,
or reddish hair, and blue or grey eyes ; reddish-white
complexion; tall, with stature of l'73m. (5ft. 8in.) ;
mesaticephalic (index 76-79 in the living) ; long face ;
narrow aquiline nose. Their original home was
Mesaticephalic Cymotrichi :
Ainu : The indigenous population of Japan consisted of
the Ainu, who are characterised by a great profusion
of black wavy hair; short, thick-set; mesaticephalic
(index 77*8) ; orthognathous, with broad face; short,
fairly broad nose ; large horizontal eyes, Mongolian
fold usually absent. Balz regards them as more or
less related to the Alpine or " Celto-Slavic " Race,
but Deniker classes them as Palaeasiatics, and Keane
places them, along with Semites and Dravidians, in
the Homo Mediterranensis group of the "Caucasic
The Brachycephalic Cymotrichi may be conveniently
included under the term Alpines or "Alpine Race.'"
This race consists of a short and a tall variety. The
race occurs mainly in the plateaus and mountains that
extend from the Himalayas, through Asia Minor, the
Balkan Peninsula to Central France and Brittany,
16 The Races of Man
Cevenoie : This name may be applied to the short, thick-
set variety which mainly occurs in Europe. Light
chestnut or dark hair; hazel grey eyes; dull white
skin; stature 1*63-1 '64m. (oft. 4-4^-in.); cephalic
index .85-87; broad face; rather broad heavy nose.
Dinaric or Adriatic: A tall variety, stature l , 68-l , 72m.
(5ft. 6-7fin.), which is probably an offshoot from
Anatolian or Armenian'. The former name may be given
to the tall variety of Asia Minor. The Armenians
appear to be the modified representatives of an
ancient Hittite stock. They are characterised by a
tawny white skin; stature \*§3-\ m GQm. (5ft. 4J-
6^-in.) ; the body is heavy, with a tendency to
corpulency; brachycephalic head, which is very flat
behind (index 85-87) ; aquiline nose with a depressed
,../ -tip anci large wings is very characteristic.
Leiotrichi : The straight-haired groups of mankind,
who are also mainly brachycephalic, are chiefly
confined to Asia and America.
Palaasiatics or Eastern Siberians : The head is often
mesaticephalic ; but in most of their features, flat
face, prominent cheek bones, oblique eyes, yellowish
brown colour, low stature, long, lank hair and sparse
beard, they resemble other Siberian groups. They
inhabit the north-east corner of Asia, and include the
Yukaghirs, Koryaks, Chukchis, Kamchadales and
Gilyaks; the latter appear to have mixed with the
Ainu, which would account for the more regular
features and beards of some of them.
Tungus: The Tungus group is subject to considerable
variation. The northern members resemble in the
main the Palasasiatics — for example, the Tungus,
Orochons, Lamuts and Gold. The Manchus are
taller, slighter, and with a tendency towards mesati-
A Classification of Mankind 17
Koreans: The modification of the Tungus type exhibited
in the Manchus is intensified in the Koreans, who
are tall and slender, with a cephalic index of 82;
long, narrow, and frequently prognathous face;
narrow aquiline nose ; eyes with Mongolian fold ;
long, thin beard.
Mongols: The skin varies in colour from pale yellowish
to yellowish brown ; black straight hair, little hair
on face or body; stature l*635m. (5ft. 3Jin.);
brachycephalic (index 82-84) with a low vault;
cheekbones prominent; flattened face, Mongolian
eyes. Typical Mongols are the Sharras, of whom
.the Khalkas, who inhabit the whole Gobi area, are
the most important group. The Kalmuks live to
the west of the Khalka country, mainly in Zungaria
and the northern part of Kashgaria ; an outlier also
occurs north-west of the Caspian. The Buryats to
the north are somewhat mixed, and extend east and
west of the southern half of Lake Baikal.
Turki: Yellowish white complexion, some with much
hair on the face, medium stature 1*675 m. (5ft. 6in.),
with a tendency to obesity ; a brachycephalic high
head (index 85-87) ; elongated oval face ; straight,
somewhat prominent nose; eyes not Mongolian.
The eastern group comprises the Yakuts of the Lena
basin and certain so-called Tatars; the central
group contains the Kirghiz, Kazaks, Uzbegs, etc. of
Russian Turkistan ; the western is composed mainly
of the Turkomans, east of the Caspian, and of the
Osmanli in Asia Minor and Turkey. To this group
belonged the Ughuz and the dreaded Uighurs, who
once founded a civilised state in Northern Kashgaria
Ugrians: Generally speaking, the Ugrians have a yellow-
ish white skin ; the hair may be black or brown ;
they are generally of short stature ; mesaticephalic
18 The Races of Man
or brachycephalic; projecting cheek bones; straight
or concave nose. Keane employs the terms
Ugrian Finns or Ugro-Finns; and Deniker calls the
Asiatic tribes, Yeniseians or Tubas. The peoples of
Western Siberia mainly belong to this group, such as
the Ostyaks, Tuba, Voguls, Samoyads; the Votyaks
and Cheremiss have penetrated into Russia, and the
Lapps into Northern Scandinavia. The latter have
a stature of 1*53 m. (5ft. Jin.), a cephalic index of
87, with a correspondingly broad face, prominent
cheek bones, dark brown hair, and a yellowish white
skin,; like most Ugrians they have an ungainly figure.
Great modifications have taken place in some of the
peoples, who, belonging to this stock, have migrated
into Europe, such as the Finns, Esthonians, Livo-
nians, Buigars, Magyars, and others.
Indo-Chinese, Pareceans or Southern Mongols: Hair black
and lank, little hair on the face ; skin colour varies
from yellowish in the north to olive and coppery-
brown in the south ; stature varies a good deal, but
is generally short, averaging about 1*6 m. (5ft. 3in.) ;
often thick set ; brachycephalic (index 80-85) ; fre-
quently prognathic; nose short and broad; eyes
often very oblique, with Mongolian fold. Most of
the peoples of this group are considerably mixed
with other races ; they comprise the Tibetans,
Himalayans, Chinese proper, and the bulk of the
populations of further India and Indo-China. Those
members who spread into the East Indian Archipel-
ago are often called Oceanic Mongols, but a better
term is Proto-Malays; and it is from these the true
Malay is derived.
Dolichocephalic American Indians: —
Eskimo : The pure Eskimo are a very distinct group,
with a brownish or reddish-yellow complexion ;
stature of F575m. (5ft. 2in.) ; they are dolichoce-
A Classification op Mankind 19
phalic (index 71-72), with a high vault; they have a
broad face, projecting cheek bones ; and eyes
straigttt and black.
Palceo- Amerinds: Deniker recognises a short dolichoce-
phalic South American Palaso-American type with
wavy or even curly hair which is still recognisable in
the mesaticephals. The cranial index of the Boto-
cudos is 73*9.
Mesaticephalic or Brachycephalic American Indians: —
Patagonians : The brachycephalic Patagonians (index 85)
are of a brown colour ; tall stature averaging 1-73-
1*83 m. (5ft. 8in.-6ft.); and square face. Traces of
this stock are found in Central South America.
Southern Amerinds: Mesaticephalic or brachycephalic;
with yellow skin, smooth body; straight or concave
nose ; and short stature.
Central Amerinds : Brachycephalic, with brownish-yellow
or brown skin ; low stature ; and straight or aquiline
North- Western Amerinds of the Pacific slope: Brachyce-
phalic (index of 82-85) ; they have usually a rounded
face; and stature of l*66-l , 69m. (5ft 5Jin.-6iin.).
Northern Amerinds of the Atlantic slope : Mesaticephalic;
with warm yellow skin ; oval face ; straight or
aquiline nose; and stature of 1-68-1-75 m. (5ft. 6-9in.).
20 The Races of Man
DISTRIBUTION OF RACES AND PEOPLES
ACCORDING TO AREAS
Oceania comprises Australia, Melanesia, Polynesia
It is generally believed that Australia was originally
inhabited, or at all events in parts, by Papuans or Negri-
toes, or more probably by a stock intermediate between
them, who wandered on foot to the extreme south of
that continent. When Bass' Strait was formed, those
who were cut off from the mainland formed the ancestors
of the Tasmanians, who never advanced beyond an early
stage of stone-age culture. Later, a Pre-Dravidian
race migrated into Australia, and over-ran the continent
and absorbed the sparse aboriginal population. Since
then they have practically remained isolated from the
rest of the world. Their languages bear no relation to
the Austronesian or Oceanic linguistic family.
Melanesia includes New Guinea and the neighbouring
islands, and the chain of archipelagoes that extends n' i
the Admiralties to New Caledonia, including Fiji. For
the sake of clearness these will be termed the Melanesia n
Archipelago. The inhabitants of this area are sometimes
spoken of as Oceanic Negroes. The primitive stock
appears to have been a very dark coloured and invariably
woolly-haired people, to whom the name Papuans can
perhaps be best applied. They form the majority of the
inhabitants of New Guinea and the basis of the popula-
tions of the Melanesian Archipelago. The latter peoples
speak a language which is a primitive form of the Austric
linguistic family, whereas the Papuan languages belong
Distribution of Races and Peoples 21
to a different family. Certain physical traits and cultural
developments also indicate that foreign influences have
modified the original stock. The view now commonly
held is that the Melanesian Archipelago was originally
inhabited by Papuans, and perhaps also by Negritoes,
and that the Proto-Polynesians in their migration from
the East Indian Archipelago to Polynesia passed through
this region and imposed their speech on the population
and otherwise modified it. In later times parts of Mel-
anesia have been directly influenced by movements from
Polynesia. The result of these supposed influences has
been to form the Melanesian peoples as they exist to-day.
Settlements from the Melanesian Archipelago occur
along the greater part of the coast of South-east New
The Polynesians are a mixed people. Their original
home was perhaps somewhere in Eastern India, whence,
shortly before our era, they migrated to the East Indian
Archipelago, where we may speak of them as Indonesians.
The Proto-Malays were about this time pressing down
south from the mainland of Asia, and eventually a mixed
population seems to have gone further east. Probably
the Proto-Polynesians, as they may now be termed,
settled for some time in the northern portion of the
Melanesian Archipelago, where some mixture took place.
Perhaps about 450 A.D. they began to adventure into the
Pacific. Samoa was certainly colonised in 600 A.D., and
Hawaii first settled in 650 A.D. Voyages from the
south to Hawaii ceased in 1325 A.D. New Zealand was
visited in 850 A.D., but "the fleet" did not arrive till
1350 A.D. The darker skinned and more curly haired
peoples who occur in some of the eastern Polynesian
islands may be the remains of a half-breed class of low
rank due to the sojourn in Melanesia. The bulk of the
Polynesians, however, show very little trace of this
22 The Races of Man
The Micronesians have much the same origin as the
Polynesians, but many exhibit more direct traces of
The Australians can rarely depend on regular supplies
of food. They feed on flesh, fish, grubs, insects and wild
vegetable food. Cultivation of the soil is unknown,
except that on the west coast the natives invariably
re-insert the head of the wild yams they have dug up so
as to be sure of a future crop. The cultivation of purs-
lane seems to be a well-established fact. The Australians
are expert hunters and trackers, and make use of in-
genious devices for catching fish and land animals. The
game caught by a man has to be shared with others
according to rule. There are many food taboos. Canni-
balism is widely spread, but human flesh is nowhere a
regular article of food. There are no domesticable
animals except the introduced dingo. Clothing of every
description, apart from ornament, is rarely worn ; but in
the south skin cloaks are commonly used, and occasionally
fur aprons. Scarification of the body is very frequent,
and prominent cicatrices are often made. Dwellings are
usually of the simplest character, being breakwinds or
slight huts ; but in places permanent huts are constructed
of boughs covered with bark and grass, and sometimes
coated with clay. Implements are made of shell, bone,
wood and stone. Spears and wooden clubs are universal ;
many of the spears are thrown by hand, but very gener-
ally some are projected by means of a spear-thrower.
The use of the boomerang is nearly universal ; the variety
that returns when it is thrown is in most tribes only a
plaything; it is, however, used for throwing at birds.
There are no bows and arrows. Pottery is unknown.
Rafts are made of one or more logs, and the commonest
form of canoe is that made of a single sheet of bark.
The Australians are divided into tribes of varying size,
Distribution of Races and Peoples 23
who occupy a certain tract of hunting ground in common,
speak dialects of the same language, and acknowledge a
common relatedness to each other which they deny to
all other tribes. Tribes are divided into well-defined
local groups, each having rights over a definite portion of
the common country, and these are sub-divided until the
smallest unit consists of a few people of the same blood
under the leadership of one of the ablest elder men. The
grouping of individuals under the names of plants,
animals, or various objects is practically universal ; these
are termed totem septs, clans, or kins. The members
commonly believe themselves to be actually descended
from, or related to, their totem, and all members are
regarded as brethren, though they may belong to differ-
ent local communities or tribes. The totem is rarely
injured, killed or eaten, and members of the totem sept
must help and never injure each other. Typically each
totem sept is exogamous. Usually the totem septs of a
tribe are grouped into two exogamous moieties, frequent-
ly termed phratries, each of which may be divided into
two or four exogamous classes. Descent in the classes is
indirect matrilineal or indirect patrilineal, that is, while
the child still belongs to the mother's or the father's
moiety (as the case may be) it is assigned to the class of
that society to which the mother or the father does not
belong; but the grandchildren belong to the class of the
grandmother or grandfather. Thus descent in an indirect
matrilineal group is as follows : —
Moiety. Man of marr ; es Woman of Their children are
class class. members of class
24 The Race; of Man
The classificatory system of relationship terms prevails.
Descent is reckoned through the mother in some tribes
and through the father in others. The local group has
perpetual succession through males.
Among many tribes there are two kinds of marital
relation, but in every case the marriage can only take
place between the members of certain groups. Thus in
most tribes all the women are either actual or potential
wives, or sisters of the men of their own tribe. A person
of marriageable age may be allocated to a special spouse,
and to a varying number of accessory spouses for varying
periods. In other tribes individual marriage occurs with
an increasing limitation of the rights of other members
Df the community.
Each totem and local group has its head man, within
which area alone he exercises power The head men
constitute the council of the tribe, and generally one is
Beneficent and malevolent magic are universally
practised. Besides its social side totemism has its
religious aspect. An emotional relation often exists
between the members of the totem sept and the totem,
and in some cases the totem warns or protects its human
kinsmen. Certain tribes perform elaborate ceremonies,
which are designed to render the totem prolific, or to
insure its abundance. Most tribes believe in mythical
beings, and a belief in a vague supreme being or elder in
the sky appears to be widely spread
Papuans and Melanesians.
The Melanesians are a noisy, excitable, demonstrative,
affectionate, cheery, passionate people. They could
not be hunters everywhere, as in most islands there is
no game, nor could they be pastors anywhere, as there are
no cattle; the only resources are fishing and agriculture.
In New Guinea and the West Solomons the sago palm is
Distribution of Races and Peoples 25
of great importance. Coco-nut palms grow mainly on
the shore in most islands. The main crops are various
kinds of bananas, numerous kinds of yams, bread-fruit,
taro (caladium) and sweet potatoes.
The men go nude in some of the wilder parts, but
mostly they wear a perineal band, which may be broad
or merely a string. Almost everywhere the women
wear a longer or shorter petticoat of finely shredded
leaves. The darker coloured natives decorate their skin
by cicatrices and cheloids. True tattooing is employed
sporadically. Every portion of the body is decorated in
various ways with shells, teeth, feathers, leaves, flowers,
and other objects, and bands are plaited to ornament the
neck, trunk, and limbs. Especially characteristic of
Melanesia are shell necklaces, which constitute a kind of
currency, and artificially deformed boars' tusks.
The typical Melanesian house has a roof of bamboo
bent over a ridge pole which is supported by two main
posts, very low side walls, and the ends filled in with
bamboo screens. Pile dwellings are found in New
Britain, some of the Solomons, and in New Guinea,
where they are sometimes in the sea.
Bows and arrows occur in New Guinea, except in the
south-east end, and generally in the archipelago. Spears
are used in the greater part of New Guinea and the
northern archipelago. Stone-headed clubs are found in
New Guinea and New Hebrides, wooden clubs are
universal. Slings are generally distributed in the
archipelago and in parts of New Guinea. Rafts and
light canoes occur in the Solomons, but the hollow tree
trunk with plank gunwhale is general in Melanesia.
Food is cooked in the earth-oven everywhere ; stone-
boiling is very widely known, boiling in clay pots is local,
and sometimes large shells are employed for boiling.
Wooden vessels for preparing and cooking food are
commonly distributed. Pottery is made at a few
26 The Races of Man
places in New Guinea, and sporadically in the
A division of the community into two exogamous
groups is very widely spread, no intermarriage being
permitted within the group. Mother-right is very preva-
lent, descent and inheritance being counted on the
mother's side, and a man's property descends to his
sister's children ; but the mother is in no way the head
of the family; the house is the father's, the garden may
be his, the rule and government are his, though the
maternal uncle sometimes has more authority than the
father. The transition to father-right has definitely
occurred in various places, and is taking place elsewhere;
thus, in some of the New Hebrides the father has to buy
off the rights of his wife's relations or his sister's children.
The classificatory system of relationship-terms very
generally prevails. Totemism has marked socialising
effects, as totemic solidarity takes precedence of all other
considerations. It occurs in some parts of Southern
New Guinea, Fiji, and other islands in the archipelago,
where it is becoming obsolete. Almost everywhere in a
village there is one building (often two, sometimes
more) of a public character where men eat and spend
their time, in these young men sleep, and strangers are
entertained ; in the Solomons these are also canoe-houses.
Frequently they contain images; women are excluded
from them. In the Banks Islands and New T Hebrides
there are numerous clubs, the members of which are of
many strictly marked grades, promotion being by pay-
ment ; each rank has its insignia, sometimes human
effigies, which are usually but wrongly spoken of as
" idols." Other socialising factors are feasts, dances,
markets, and money.
Probably everywhere public affairs are regulated by
discussion among the old or important men; the more
primitive the society the more important this is. Chiefs
Distribution of Races and Peoples 27
exist everywhere, though with variable powers, which /
mainly depend upon their own character, but in many
places their influence is attributed to their mana.
Hereditary chieftainship in the direct line rarely occurs,
though it is often retained in the family. Every village
has its own chief who alone rules, but weaker, chiefs join
in offensive and defensive alliances, and powerful chiefs
sometimes force weaker ones into vassalship. The power
of secret societies tends to obscure that of the chiefs.
Practically no organisation exists for redressing wrong or
punishing the guilty, hence private quarrels are personal
affairs and public opinion stops them only when they
become acute. The growth of the power of secret
societies forms a means for the coercion and chastise-
ment of objectionable persons, but they are often
terrorising and black-mailing institutions. They occur
in New Guinea (except the south-east peninsula) and
New Britain, and from Torres Islands to New Caledonia,
and with them are frequently associated awesome
ceremonies with masked performers and implements
that produce weird sounds.
Important secret initiation ceremonies for lads take
place in the bush or in special houses in various parts of
New Guinea, New Britain, some of the Solomons, and
Malekula. Magical practices occur everywhere for the
gaining of benefits, plenteous crops, good fishing, fine
weather, rain, success in love, and the procuring of
children. Harmful magic for producing sickness and
death is universal.
From the Solomons to the New Hebrides (and perhaps
elsewhere) the native mind is entirely possessed by belief
in a supernatural power or influence, called almost
universally mana. This is what works to effect everything
which is beyond the ordinary power of man or outside
the common processes of nature ; but this power, though
in itself impersonal, is always connected with some
28 The Races of Man
person who directs it; all spirits have it, ghosts generally,
and some men (Codrington). Animism does not exist;
the sea or forest does not possess its own soul, but is
haunted by spirit or ghost ; Animatism, or intrinsic life
in inanimate objects, does occur in some places. A
more or less developed ancestor cult is universally
distributed. Human beings may become beneficent or
maleficent ghosts, but not every ghost becomes an
object of regard. The ghost who is to be worshipped is
the spirit of a man who in his lifetime had mana. Hero
cult occurs in Torres Straits. Good or evil spirits
apparently independent of ancestors are found practically
everywhere. In the Solomons more attention is paid to
ghosts with a greater development of sacrifice, offerings
of food being burnt as well as eaten (associated with
these is an advance in the arts of life). In the southern
groups more attention is paid to the spirits; food, and
more especially money, is offered to them, but not burnt
or eaten, and generally offered at stones sacred to
spirits. There are no priests, but a man who knows how
to perform magic or approach an object of worship
sometimes sacrifices for all. There are no " idols."
Everywhere life after death is believed in.
The Polynesians are cheerful, dignified and polite, and
more imaginative and intelligent but more dissolute than
the Melanesians. They are very cleanly in their habits
and neat and orderly.
Wherever possible they are agriculturists, growing
yams, sweet potatoes, and taro. Coco-nut, bread-fruit,
and bananas form the staple food in many islands. Can-
nibalism was prevalent in Polynesia ; it was resorted to
sometimes for purposes of revenge, sometimes it had a
magical significance. Human flesh appears to have been
eaten simply for food in New Zealand and other places.
[Races of Man, p. 2 i.
Distribution of Races and Peoples 29
The men formerly wore an adequate garment of bark cloth
(tapa), and the women an ample petticoat made of
native cloth or of leaves split and coarsely plaited.
Ornaments are more sparingly worn than in Melanesia,
with the exception of flowers. The houses are well
built, usually with thatched walls and roof, and are oval
or oblong in form. The bow and arrow is unknown as a
weapon; short spears, slings, and wooden clubs are used,
but no shields. Fishing is everywhere resorted to, and
fish-hooks are made in great variety. Pottery was
made only in the Tonga and Easter Islands. Mat-making
and basketry are carried to a fine art, as is the making of
tapa. The old feather work attained its greatest excel-
lence in Hawaii. Large sailing double canoes were
formerly in use, and single canoes with an outrigger are
All through Polynesia the community is divided into
nobles or chiefs, freemen and slaves, which divisions are
by reason of taboo as sharp as those of caste. They fall
into those which participate in the divine and those
which are wholly excluded from it. Women have a high
position, and men do their fair share of work. Poh T gyny
was universal, being limited only by the wealth of the
husband or the numerical preponderance of the men.
The husband can take nothing of his wife's; when he
dies she retains only what he has given her, his brother
being the heir. Mother-right was universal, but father-
right has begun in places, especially in the families of
chiefs. Children inherit their mother's rank and
Usually the priests gained considerable influence, and
there were numerous gods. In Samoa and Tonga the
primitive gods were associated with animals, and some-
times entered their bodies. Excluding Samoa, gods
were worshipped by " idols" which were not "gods" but
" god-boxes " ; ancestors were also deified. The system
30 The Races of Man
of taboo was carried to a great excess in many islands.
Taboo is a Polynesian word and is said to mean strongly
marked. Things holy and things unclean are alike taboo.
Tabooed persons render everything they touch taboo ;
its operation is always mechanical, and the intentions of
the taboo-breaker have no effect upon the action of the
Distribution of Races and Peoples 31
Africa proper begins south of Sahara. The northern
desert zone and the Mediterranean area are the home of
the horse. The camel is the typical domestic animal of
the desert zone. At the base of the northern slopes of
the plateau spiny shrubs give pasturage for goats.
Further south the greater rainfall gives rise to a vigorous
flora, and cows graze on the luxuriant grass; here, too,
the natives grow durra (sorghum) ; Eleusine is grown in
the drier region north of the Welle. The increased rain-
fall of West and Central Africa permits the growth of
dense forests ; the banana is the chief food plant, and in
Uganda it is the staple food. The imported manioc
(cassava or tapioca) is grown in West Central Africa and
south of the Congo and north of the Zambezi. Where
there is sufficient moisture on the plateaus of South
Africa, scattered trees constitute a savanna (t>ush-veld),
elsewhere there is only grass (grass or high veld) except
to the west, where steppes culminate in the Kalahari
Desert, and it is into this inhospitable country that the
Bushman has mainly retreated.
There is some evidence that at a very'early time the
Bushmen occupied the hunting grounds of tropical East
Africa, perhaps even to the confines of Abyssinia. They
gradually passed southwards, keeping along the more
open grass lands of the eastern mountainous zone, where
they could still preserve their hunting method of life,
until, when history dawned on the scene, they roamed
over most of the territory south of the Zambezi.
Culturally, as well as physically, the Hottentots may
be regarded as a blend of two stocks. They combined
32 The Races of Man
the cattle-rearing habits of the Hamites with the
aversion from tillage of the soil characteristic of the
hunter; they became nomadic herders, who were
stronger than the Bushmen, but who themselves could
not withstand the Bantu when they came in contact
with them, and they too were driven to less favourable
The Hottentot migration from the eastern mountainous
zone took place much later than that of the Bushmen,
and it seems to have been due mainly to the pressure
from behind of the waxing Bantu peoples. These
pastoral nomads took a south-westerly course across the
savanna country south of lake Tanganyika, and worked
their way down the west coast and along the southern
shore of the continent. What is now Cape Colony was
inhabited solely by Bushmen and Hottentots at the time
of the arrival of the Europeans. As the latter expanded
they drove the aborigines before them, but in the
meantime mongrel peoples had arisen, mainly of Boer-
Hottentot parentage, who also were forced to migrate.
Those of the Cape Hottentots, who were not exter-
minated or enslaved, drifted north and found in
Bushmanland an asylum from their pursuers.
The Negril'.oes, who primitively were probably related
to the Bushmen, appear always to have occupied the
tropical forests of Africa. Their local variability indicates
a Negro mixture.
The home of the Negro appears to have been the
Sudan and most of the tropical area, where he practised
agriculture and became a great trader. That branch of
the true Negro stock which spake the mother-tongue of
the Bantu languages some 3,000 years ago (according to
Sir Harry Johnston's estimate) spread over the area of
what is now Uganda and British Bast Africa. In the
forest region these people probably mixed with Negrilloes,
and possibly with the most northerly representatives of
Distribution of Races and Peoples 33
the Bushmen in the high lands to the east. Here also
they came into contact with the Hamitic peoples coming
down from the north, and their amalgamation constituted
a new breed of Negro — the Bantu.
The Bantu are cattle-rearers who practise agriculture.
A factor of great importance in their evolution is to be
found in the great diversity of climate and soil in
Equatorial East Africa. It is a country of small
plateaus separated by gorges, or low-lying lands. The
small plateaus are suitable for pasturage, but their extent
is limited; thus they fell to the lot of the more vigorous
people, while the conquered had to content themselves
with low country, and were obliged to hunt or cultivate
the land. In these healthy highlands the people
multiplied, and migration became necessary; the stronger
and better-organised groups retained their flocks and
migrated in a southerly direction, keeping to the
savannas and open country, the line of least resistance
being indicated by the relative social feebleness of the
peoples to the south. In the small plateaus a nomadic
life is impossible for the herders, there being at most a
seasonal change of pasturage. This prevents the posses-
sion of large herds and necessitates a certain amount of
tillage ; further, it would seem that this mode of life tends
to develop military organisation and a tribal system.
The north-east corner of Africa, from Egypt to
Somaliland, is the home of the Hamites. Essentially
they are a pastoral people, and therefore prone t'
wander. In Uganda, the occasionally polyandric Bahima
are of Hamitic descent; they are herdsmen in Buganda,
a sort of aristocracy in Unyoro, a ruling caste in Toro,
and the dominant race with dynasties in Ankole. The
dreaded Masai of East Africa seem to be a hybrid
between the Negro and Galla. Another example of the
predominance which a Hamitic mixture usually engenders
is seen in the " rude Fullah shepherds " who overlord the
34 The Races of Man
settled, industrious, and commercial Negro Hausas in
From time immemorial Semites have poured into
Africa, and the whole country north of Sahara has been
largely Semitised by Arabs of the Ishmaelitic group, but
the Berbers remain as distinct as they can from the
Arabs. A similar process has occurred in Abyssinia, but
by the Himyaritic or Sabsean group. Arab traders and
slave raiders have penetrated far into Africa, and have
modified the population of the eastern coasts.
The characters of the pygmies of the equatorial
forests of Africa are variable, and mixture with Negroes
has taken place.
They are a markedly intelligent people, innately
musical, and cunning, revengeful, and suspicious in
disposition ; they never steal.
They are nomadic hunters and collectors, never
resorting to agriculture. They have no domestic
animals. Only meat is cooked. They wear no clothing
of any sort. They use bows and poisoned arrows.
Their own language is not known. They live in small
communities which centre round a cunning fighter or
able hunter. Their dead are buried in the ground.
Nothing is known of their religion.
The Bushmen, Khuai or San, have been generally credi-
ted with being vindictive, passionate, and cruel, but they
were as a matter of fact always friendly and hospitable
to strangers till dispossessed of their hunting grounds.
They were not given to fighting one another, and were
an unselfish, merry, cheerful race, with an intense love
NEGRILLO, Kasai Valley, Congo.
[Races of Man, p. 34.
Distribution of Races and Peoples 35
Being nomadic hunters the Bushmen can only
attain to the rudiments of material culture. Their
clothing consists solely of a small skin, and there is a
dearth of personal ornaments ; necklaces are, however,
made out of the discs of ostrich eggs. They frequently
cut off the terminal joint of the little finger. Their
dwellings are portable, mat-covered, dome-shaped huts,
but they often live in caves, the rock walls of which they
are fond of decorating with spirited coloured representa-
tions of men and animals; designs are also chipped by
them on surfaces of exposed rocks. For weapons they
have small bows and poisoned arrows ; their only
implement is a perforated rounded stone, into which a
stick is inserted, and this they use for digging up
roots. A little coarse pottery is occasionally made.
The Bushmen were never cannibals. Cairns of stones
are erected over the graves of their dead.
The Hottentots, or Khoikhoi, of former days were
described as mild and amiable. They were absolutely
improvident, unstable, and thoughtless, and extra-
ordinarily dirty in every respect. Sick and infirm
oersons and weak or deformed children were abandoned,
but they never resorted to cannibalism.
They were nomadic herdsmen who never cultivated
the soil. Their chief foods were milk from their herds,
the flesh of such animals as died, which they ate cooked,
game, locusts, and various plants and fruits. They had
an intoxicating drink made of honey, and smoked a sort
of wild hemp which is a powerful intoxicant.
Both sexes had clothing made of skins prepared with
the hair on ; that of the men consisted of a skin flap in
the front and a strip at the back. Their ornaments
consisted of copper trinkets, and strings of shells or
leopards' teeth round the neck.
36 The Races op Man
Their dwellings were portable, dome-shaped huts
covered with mats, with one opening. These huts were
arranged in a circle round a space used as a fold for
cattle. They had wooden dishes for milk, and ostrich
egg-shells were used as vessels. Their weapons were
bows and poisoned arrows, assagais and knobkerries or
clubbed sticks used as missiles. Clumsy earthenware
pots were made for cooking.
The Hottentots were grouped in clans, each with its
hereditary chief, whose authority, however, was very
limited. Several clans were loosely united to form
tribes. The jealousy between the head men of the clans
rendered the government very unstable.
The Hottentots were polygynous, a man being allowed
to have as many wives as he couid afford, who were
generally taken from a different clan.
The right of individuals to hold property apart from
the community was recognised, and the possession of
wealth entailed considerable influence. Children in-
herited the property of their fathers.
The Hottentots believed in charms, good and evil
omens, and had a dread of ghosts and evil spirits. They
sang and danced to the new moon. There was a cult of
a mythical hero named Heitsi-eibib who has become
magnified into the supreme power of good. There was
also a powerful evil being named Gaunab, who was
worsted by Heitsi-eibib.
In the forest regions the people subsist mainly on
bananas, fish, and game, though corn, yams, earth-nuts,
beans, and gourds are frequently grown. In the more
open country, millet is extensively grown together with
other edible plants. Hunting is everywhere indulged in.
Goats, pigs, and chickens are kept almost everywhere ;
cattle and horses are kept only in the more open or
Distribution of Races and Peoples 37
higher regions, their distribution being largely regulated
by the tsetse fly.
The clothing of the Negroes consists of bark-cloth,
woven palm-fibre, and introduced cotton, and they are
much addicted to vegetable ornaments. Circumcision is
common, and the upper incisors are frequently knocked
out. The form of dwelling is the rectangular gable-
roofed hut ; their weapons include spears with socketed
heads, bows tapering at each end with bowstrings of
vegetable products, swords, and plaited shields, but no
clubs or slings. Among the musical instruments are
wooden drums and a peculiar form of guitar in which
each string has its own support. Head-rests and coiled
basketry do not generally occur. Metal-working is met
with everywhere and weaving is general ; earthenware is
made everywhere, and leather-working is carried to a
fine art. The Negroes have always been great traders,
and markets are held in all towns.
Among the more primitive tribes, the community is
divided into exogamous septs which probably were
originally totemic, and which trace their descent from a
common ancestress. Polygyny is universal when a man
can afford it, but the first wife takes precedence of the
rest. Usually descent is in the female line, but
occasionally it is reckoned through the father, in which
case the sons inherit his property. Slavery is not so
abject a condition as is often the case. Slaves may be
war-captives, or a man may pawn himself or his
relatives into slavery. Domestic slaves may inherit
Secret societies flourish in West Africa in which
masks are employed. These societies are powerful
engines for the regulation of society and punishment of
ill-doers, although at times their power is abused. Very
frequently the women also have secret societies which
support their interests.
38 The Races of Man
Fetishism is universal; the fetish may consist of any
object whatsoever; it is accredited with mysterious
power owing to its being temporarily or permanently the
vessel or habitation or instrument of some unseen power
or spirit. It may act by the will or force of its own
power or spirit, or by force of a foreign power enterin
in or acting on it from without. It is worshipped,
prayed to, sacrificed to, and petted or ill-treated
according to its behaviour.
Animism, the belief in everything in nature being
animated by an indwelling spirit of its own, is said to be
prevalent. Some deities are local, but there are
frequently other deities of the sky, of the earthquake, and
so forth. Priests occur everywhere, but it is only among
the more civilised peoples that they acquire power.
A cult of ancestors is met with in all parts.
The Bantu peoples may be roughly divided according
to culture into two groups: a western zone, which skirts
the West African region or the Congo basin and extends
through Angola and German West Africa into Cape
Colony; and an eastern zone. (1) The western Bantu
zone is characterised by beehive huts, the absence of
circumcision, and the presence of wooden shields (plain
or covered with cane-work) in its northern portion,
though skin shields occur to the south. (2) In the
eastern Bantu zone, except among the Zulu peoples, the
huts are cylindrical, with a separate conical roof.
Certain characteristics are typical of the Bantu culture
as a whole. The natives live in rounded huts with
•pointed roofs. The domestic animals include the dog,
goat, and sheep and cattle are found wherever possible.
Clothing is of skin and leather, and there is a pre-
dominance of animal ornaments; knocking out or filing
Distribution of Races and Peoples 39
of incisors is general except in the south; circumcision is
common, though among the Zulu tribes it seems to be
dying out. Their weapons comprise spears, in which
the head is fastened into the shaft by a spike, bows with
bowstrings of animal products, clubs and skin shields,
but slings are usually absent. Coiled basketry is made,
and head-rests are a characteristic feature.
Totemism once existed, but now only occurs in certain
tribes. Ancestor-worship is the prevalent form of
religion; fetishism and polytheism are undeveloped.
Masks and representations of human figures are rare,
and there are no secret societies, though secluded
initiation ceremonies may be held. Anthropophagy is
sporadic and usually temporary.
The Bantu are cattle-rearers who practise agriculture.
This duality of occupation led to variability in mode of
life. In some places the land invited the population
towards husbandry, in others the physical conditions
were more suited to a pastoral life, and thus we find
settled agricultural tribes on the one hand and wandering
herders on the other. The Bantu peoples easily adopt
changes of custom ; under the leadership of a warlike
chief they become warlike and cruel, a common char-
acteristic of pastoral peoples. The history of the prolific
Bantu peoples on the whole indicates that they were as
loosely attached to the soil as were the Ancient Germans,
and, like the latter, at the slightest provocation, they
would abandon their country and seek another home.
This readiness to migrate is the direct effect of a pastoral
life, and along with this legacy of unrest their Hamitic
ancestors transmitted a social organisation which lent
itself to discipline.
40 The Races of Man
The population of Europe may be briefly described as
consisting of an indigenous white population and intrusive
In classifying the Europeans proper, the most im-
portant physical features to be noted are the cephalic
index, pigmentation, and stature. The cephalic index
ranges from 62 to 103, but the limit of variation in
definite groups is much more restricted. Pigmentation
in Europe is mainly considered with regard to the colour of
hair and eyes. Dark hair and dark eyes constitute pure
brunet types; fair hair and light eyes, pure blond types;
their relative frequency is expressed in percentages.
Pig nentation shades from 54% of pure blond types in
Sweden to 96% of pure brunet types in Greece. Stature
appears to be of less importance ; it varies from a
preponderance of heights about l*6m. (5ft. 3in.) in
Sardinia to l*792m. (5ft. lOfin.) in Galloway (South-west
Judged by these characters, the bulk of the existing
population of true Europeans can be divided into three
main groups: — (1) Tail, fair, dolichocephals in the north,
(2) Short or tall, medium-coloured, brachycephals in the
centre ; and (3) Short, dark, dolichocephals in the south.
During and since neolithic times the Nordic (Northern),
Alpine, and Mediterranean "races" have existed in
northern, central, and southern Europe, but various
movements and mixtures of portions of these three
groups have occurred which have greatly complicated
European racial ethnology.
The Asiatic elements in Europe are confined to its
Distribution of Races and Peoples 41
eastern portion ; they belong to the Ugrian, Turki and
Mongol divisions of the Ural-Altaians.
Northern Europe : —
Scandinavia. — There are three distinct racial elements
in Scandinavia : —
1. The Lapps are Ugrians of Asiatic origin who
lived in the north of Norway and Sweden, but
formerly they extended further to the South.
2. Northern Race, in greatest purity over the
greater part of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.
3. Round the south of Sweden, the south and
west coast of Norway, and on the opposite shores of
Denmark, is a brachycephalic type (index 80-83)i
with darker hair and eye colour, and shorter stature,
thus indicating a mixture with the Alpine Race.
British Isles. — Mainly inhabited by members of the
Northern and Mediterranean Races, with traces of
Alpine Race. The cephalic index is uniformly 77-78.
The Northern elements are more pronounced on
north and east of Britain, with fair colouring and
tall stature. The Mediterranean elements persist in
Inverness, Argyle, Wales, Cornwall, an area north
of London, the Fen country, and largely in Ireland,
with darker colouring and shorter stature. Traces
of Alpine elements occur in Fife, East Lothian,
Aberdeen, Shetland Islands, Faroe Islands, and the
north-west coast of Ireland, with a cephalic index
Central Europe : —
France. — Two axes of fertility, from Flanders to
Bordeaux, and along the Rhone valley, separate
four less attractive areas : the Ardennes plateau,
Auvergne, Savoy, and Brittany. These areas are
occupied by the Alpine Race, with a cephalic index
42 The Races of Man
of 83-87, medium colouring, and short stature,
especially in Auvergne. The axes of fertility are
occupied by the Northern Race to the north, and
the Mediterranean Race to the south ; the cephalic
index ranges from 79 to 83 ; blondness and stature
decrease from north to south.
In Dordogne a type is met with which has a
cephalic index of 76 to 78, a low vault, broad face,
prominent cheekbones, dark colouring, and a medium
stature. This is regarded as a survival of the
Cro-Magnon type, which dates from late Palaeolithic
In Brittany, the fringe of Northern Race round
the coast is due to Saxon invasions, especially
noticeable in the predominance of fair types in
Morbihan. There are traces of a Cornish settlement
The Basques are placed by Deniker in his Littoral
or Atlanto -Mediterranean Race. They are brachy-
ccphalic (index 83) north of the Pyrenees ; and
mesaticephalic (index 77-79) south of the Pyrenees ;
the dividing line being over the north slope of the
range. The facial features found among both types
are a triangular face, broad temples, long pointed
chin, long thin nose, dark hair, dark eyes rather
close together, and a stature of l*65m. to l*674m.
(5ft. 5in. to 5ft. 6in.). The Basques are generally
regarded as a variety of the Mediterranean Race.
Switzerland. — The Alpine Race is predominant, and the
Northern Race subordinate ; cephalic index 87 ; hair
and eye colour medium; stature, l*67m. (5ft. 5|in.).
Belgium. — The Flemings of the northern plains belong
to the Northern Race ; cephalic index 79. The
Walloons of the southern uplands are members of
the Alpine Race ; cephalic index 82.
Distribution of Races and Peoples 43
Netherlands. — Northern Race predominates. A brachy-
cephalic element (index 83-87) occurs in the
provinces of Noord-Holland and Zeeland.
Germany. — The Northern Race is paramount in the
northern plains, and the Alpine Race prevails in
the southern uplands ; there is a decrease in
dolichocephaly, blondness and height from north to
Austria- Hungary contains several racial elements : —
In Austria proper and Salzburg, traits of the
Northern Race predominate. The cephalic index
varies from 79 to 81, and blond types are frequent ;
the average stature is about l*65m. to l-67m.
(5ft. 5in. to 5ft. 5jin.). Elsewhere the cephalic
index ranges from 83 to 86 ; darker types prevail ;
the stature in the east averages l-62m. to l*64m,
(5ft. 3|in. to 5ft. 4£in.). A tall type (Deniker's
Adriatic or Dinaric Race) occurs in the south, the
stature of which averages from l-68m. to l # 72m.
(5ft. 6in. to 5ft. 7f in.) ; it is brachycephalic (index
81-86), and has dark hair and a narrow straight
nose. Thus the Cevenole and Anatolian varieties
of the Alpine Race are present in Austria.
Hungary. — The Magyars were originally of
Finno-Ugrian origin (p. 49). The Finno-Ugrian type
is brachycephalic or mesaticephalic, with projecting
cheek-bones, straight or concave nose, yellowish
white skin ; straight brown hair, and short stature.
The Magyars have, however, assimilated to a
European type ; their cephalic index is probably 84,
they have a moderately dark colouring, and medium
stature, l-619m. to l-646m. (5ft. 3Jin. to 5ft. 4 Jin.).
44 The Races op Man
Easterv Europe : —
Russia. — Three racial elements occur, the Northern
Alpine, and Ural- Altaian : —
1. To the Northern Race belong the Letto-
Lithuanians, with a cephalic index 77-80, tall
stature, a long face, and fair colouring, 67% being
2. To the Alpine Race belong the three main
groups of Russians: —
(i) The Great Russians in the north, east, and
centre are brachycephalic (index 82), with a
square face, heavy features, reddish blond hair,
orange-brown eyes, and a stature averaging
l-64m. (5ft. 4£in.).
(ii) The Little Russians in the south, on the
Black Mould belt, have a cephalic index of 82-83,
darker colouring, and taller stature.
(iii) The White Russians in the west, between
Poland and Lithuania, have a cephalic index of
82; they are the fairest of the three groups, and
are of medium height.
The Polesians of the Pinsk marshes, with a
cephalic index of 82-83; straight flaxen hair, and
short stature, l*635m. (5ft. 4Jin.); constitute
Deniker's Oriental Race.
The Poles mainly belong to the Alpine Race ; their
cephalic index varies from 80 in the west to 83 in
the east, they are moderately fair, and of very short
stature, 161m. (5ft. 3£in.). They belong to Deniker's
3. Three branches of the Ural- Altaian are
represented : —
(i) To the Mongols belong the Kalmuks between
the Don and the Dnieper.
Distribution of Races and Peoples 45
(ii) To the Turki belong the Kirghiz round the
north and west of the Caspian Sea, the Volga
Tatars to the east of Russia, and the Crimean
Tatars to the south.
(iii) To various divisions of the Ugrians belong
the Lapps and the Finns to the north-west, and
the Samoyads and others to the north-east.
Many of these groups have entirely lost their
" Mongolian " character, e.g., the Finns. The
Finns as a whole are mesaticephalic (index 76-77)
to brachycephalic (index 81-82). They are
divisible into two main groups : —
(i.) The Karelians in the east are less brachy-
cephalic, have chestnut hair, straight grey eyes,
brown complexion, and are tall and slim.
(ii.) The Tavastians, in the west, are more
brachycephalic, with light flaxen or tow -coloured
hair, small and slightly oblique blue eyes, a white
complexion, and are short, broad, and thick set.
Balkan States. — Mixed peoples, mainly of Alpine,
Finno-Ugrian and Turki origin, prevail in the
The Roumanians consist of Turki and Slav (Alpine
Race) elements; the cephalic index ranges from 79
on the east coast to 85 in the west, rising in
places to 87*8 ; with dark colouring, and a stature of
l'638m. (5ft. 4£in.). They speak a Romance
The Bulgarians contain Ugrian and Slav elements;
their cephalic index is 78 on the coast, and 85 in the
west; they have a broad, flattish face; black hair;
small slant eyes; and a stature of l*63m. (5ft. 4^in.) >
with heavy figures. They speak a Slav language.
46 The Races of Man
The Albanians are Southern Slavs; they are
hyper-brachycephalic (index rising to 89), relatively
blond, with a stature of l'68m. (5ft. 6in.). Their
language is derived from the old Illyrian, a proto-
Aryan dialect. Deniker places them in his Adriatic
or Dinaric Race.
The Turks are brachiocephalic, with a cephalic
index of 85-87, a cuboid head, elongated oval face,
straight, somewhat prominent nose ; yellowish white
complexion; dark hair; and dark non-Mongoloid
eyes; they are of moderately tall stature, 1 "675111.
(5ft. 6in.), with a tendency to obesity. Of Turki
Southern Europe : —
Greece. — The indigenous Mediterranean Race has been
overlaid by the Alpine Race; cephalic index 81;
smooth oval face, rather narrow and high ; nose
straight, thin, and high ; uniformly dark hair and
eyes; stature l-626m. (5ft. 4in.).
Italy. — The Alpine Race occurs in the basin of the Po,
between the Apennines and the Alps; cephalic index
83-87; with fair to medium colouring, and often light
brown hair and eyes; the stature averages l*645m.
(5ft. 4fin.), but is taller towards the north. The
Mediterranean Race occupies the peninsula; the
cephalic index ranges from 84 in the north to 77-78
in the south ; brunet types increase in frequency to
over 60% in the south ; and the stature falls to
l*55m. (5ft. lin.) in the south. There are traces of
the Northern Race in Lombardy.
Distribution of Races antd Peoples 47
Spain. — Mainly inhabited by the Mediterranean Race ;
the physical characters are fairly uniform. The
cephalic index is pretty generally 76-79, but in the
north-west mountains it is broader, 79-80; dark hair
and eyes; the stature averages about l*62m. to
l'66m. (5ft. 3fin. to 5ft. 5in.), increasing from the
centre towards the coast.
48 The Races of Man
Our knowledge of the history of Central and Northern
Asia is very imperfect, and owing to the great move-
ments of peoples that have taken place, the racial
history is a peculiarly difficult problem. A further
source of uncertainty is the indefinite manner in which
racial terms have been employed. The following sketch,
therefore, must be regarded as tentative.
The aboriginal population of Northern Asia belongs to
that group to which the name Ural-Altaic is frequently
applied. This term was designed to express linguistic
affinities, and though the group extends beyond its
geographical significance, it will be provisionally adopted,
for want of a better designation. These people are also
usually called Mongols or Northern Mongols. The term
Mongol appears to have been originally given to a horde
of aggressive nomads who were recruited from Turki,
Oghuz and Tungus tribes. Latterly it has been so
employed as to embrace all the brachycephalic, straight-
haired peoples of Asia, who have a more or less
yellowish skin, frequently high cheek-bones, and often a
peculiar kind of eye, which may be also oblique.
The short, western, and northern Ural-Altaians form
one division, which includes such peoples as the Ugrians
(in part), Pal&asiatics, some of the Tungus, and the true
Mongols. The taller eastern Ural-Altaians include the
Manchu-Koreans, but amongst these a race mixture may
Distribution of Races and Peoples 49
be suspected. The Finno-Ugrians and Turki are of
In prehistoric times there appears to have been an
extension of dolichocephalic peoples (a branch of which
group occurred along the plains of Europe) right across
Asia, of which the Ainus may be modified descendants,
and whose influence may be detected among the Manchus
and upper class Tungus. This presumed migration does
not appear to have effected much in the way of civilisa-
tion ; probably because the people were in a low stage of
culture and lived under unfavourable conditions.
There was probably a later extension of dolichocephals
more nearly related to the Nordic race of Europe. The
Chinese annals tell of red-haired, blue-eyed tribes in
Central Asia, of w T hich the Wusuns were one, and recent
excavations in Chinese Turkistan have demonstrated the
former occurrence of this type in that region. They
were of better physique and greater energy than the older
dolichocephals, and appear to have belonged to that race
which many ethnologists term Aryan, but Kingsmill* has
* " In the old Iranian cosmogony Feridun (Thraetaona, the
Vedic Traitona), had three sons, Cairima, Tuirya, and Airya,
the eponyms respectively of the" Cairimyans (Sauromats),
Tuiryans (Turanians), i.e., the ancient inhabitants of the
Pamirs and the basin of Eastern Turkistan, and the Aryans
(these last forming, however, only one of the many families
comprised by modern ethnologists under the general term
Aryan). As Feridun is always in the Iranian legend the
' Athwyan,' i.e., the descendant of Athwya, I have suggested
the term Athwyan to cover the entire section of the blond race
now roughly known as Aryan, and would reserve the latter
term for the first stream of the immigrants into India some
eighteen centuries B.C. and their immediate relations, especi-
ally the Iranians."
(T. \V. Kingsmill, Jul. China Branch Ray. Asiatic Soc,
XXXVII, 1906, p. 35.)
50 The Races of Man
proposed the term Athwyan for the Aryan group of
peoples, and Turanian for this particular branch.
The Finno-Ugrian and Turki peoples may very well
have arisen from a crossing between Ural-Altaians and
Athwyans. This perhaps might help to account for the
degree of culture arrived at by the Proto-Finns in their
Asiatic home in Altai, and of that of the Hiung-nu and
A mixture of races has also occurred in South-eastern
Asia. The yellow-skinned brachycephals, for whom
Kingsmill proposes the name of Pareceans, are the Indo-
Chinese, or Southern Mongols, of most authors. There is
good evidence of an entirely distinct race, characterised
by fine features, straight eyes, and probably a narrow
head, inhabiting parts of Southern China, and it seems
to have a wide range in that part of Asia. The Man-tse
of Yun-nan and Se-chuen (who are described as tall,
graceful, with a brownish but not yellow skin, the
colour of the hair has a tendency to chestnut and is
sometimes wavy, face oval, cheek-bones but slightly
prominent, nose elevated and moderately broad, eyes
large, level, with no fold of the upper eyelid), are
descendants of this race, which is probably allied to the
The Chinese are Parea^an at base with other mixtures.
Many students believe that the progressive element of
the old Chinese civilisation was due to a migration
of a semi-cultured people from Chinese Turkistan or
even, originally, from further west. The Japanese are
also Pareseans (Indo-Chinese) with a strong Korean
blend, and in places with a substratum of Ainu blood.
Distribution of Races and Pboples 51
The Negrito race must in early days have had a greater
extension in the extreme south-east of Asia and in the
East Indian Archipelago than occurs at present. The
Melanesians have left no trace of their assumed ancient
passage, except in the south of the Archipelago. The
Sakai, the Batin of Sumatra and the Toala of Celebes have
been recognised as belonging to the Pre-Dravidian race,
and they may be regarded as being vestiges of the
Australian migration. The existing population of the
Archipelago, with exceptions just noted, consists mainly
of varying degrees of mixture of dolichocephalic
Indonesians with brachy cephalic Proto-Malays. In some
places there has also been a slight Arab influence ; in
others, Dravidians from India on the one hand and
Chinese on the other have definitely modified the
The brachycephals south of the Himalayas are more
closely related to the Tibetans than to the Indo-Chinese.
Keane distinguishes three racial elements among the
Tibetans : — The Bod-pa, the settled and more or less
civilized section, who occupy most of the southern and
more fertile provinces. The Dru-pa, peaceful, semi-
nomadic pastoral tribes of the northern plateaus. The
Tanguts, predatory tribes who hover about the north-
The ethnological history of India is dealt with on
The plateaus of Western Asia appear to have been
originally inhabited by the Alpine Race. "Aryans,"
allied to the Aryas who entered North-east India, have
over-lorded Persia, and for ages Turki tribes have poured
52 The Races op Man
over the whole area from the north-east, and Semites
have encroached from the south, while the littoral of
Asia Minor has always been more or less occupied by
Mediterraneans. It is significant that the Sumers, who
founded the earliest Babylonian civilisation, were possibly
of Turki origin; they soon became Semitised, but the
civilisation was pre-Semitic.
Nearly the whole breadth of Central Asia, excluding
the deserts and mountains, is a grass-clad region in
which cattle-keeping is the natural industry. In the
inhospitable regions to the north, grass is replaced by
the lichen generally known as " reindeer moss."
Horses, sheep, goats, cows, and camels are kept in
the steppe region, while reindeer alone can exist on
the tundra. The latter region is inhabited by wandering
tribes who depend more or less on the reindeer for
their existence. The Lapps, and the tribes living in
the tundra of North Russia, are in a similar condition.
Both the steppe and the tundra necessitate a nomadic
life, and this fact has had a profound effect on the
history of Asia. The desiccation of Central Asia has
caused migration from lands that were formerly more
fertile, and this was facilitated by the mobile habits
of the pastoral peoples. The inroads of the hordes
of this origin into India, Western Asia, and Eastern
Europe have left a deep mark alike in racial distribution,
history, and tradition.
Distribution of Races and Peoples 53
Herders on the Steppes.
The Khalkas are a good type of a purely nomadic
The only two modes of sustenance possible to them
are hunting and herding, and these are facilitated by the
fact that they possess the horse as a domestic animal.
As a result of these occupations, the men are fine
horsemen and extremely hardy; they are, however, prone
to idleness. The women's work consists in milking
twice daily, taking charge of the beasts at foaling time,
house-work, needlework, the manufacture of household
utensils, tanning leather, fulling wool, and making
illuminant, soap, and dyes. All the labour of shifting
the camp falls upon them.
In their organisation the unit is the family, and above
this the sole grouping is the tribe, which is practically
the union of families of common origin. Authority is
vested in the old men, of whom the patriarch is chief;
he combines the functions of father, teacher, magistrate,
priest, and sovereign, being the depositary of traditions
and the supreme judge. Otherwise there is essential
equality between men. Children are numerous, and
have a profound veneration for their father, from whom
age does not enfranchise them. There is no government
external to the family.
Property consists of cattle. There is no personal
ownership of land otherwise than the temporary
possession constituted by usage of it.
Shamanism is the basis of their religion, but it is
overlaid by Buddhism. Filial piety characterises later
54 The Racbs of Man
Herders on the Tundra.
There are four groups of peoples living in the
tundra : —
(1) The purely pastoral peoples who possess herds of
domesticated reindeer and live on their milk and flesh —
(2) The pastoral groups whose herds of reindeer are
insufficient to support life. This may result from
epidemics or from the cantonment system established by
the Russian Government; the limitation of pasturing
rights necessitates a reduction in the number of the
reindeer, and the few that remain are too precious to be
used for food. The means of subsistence have to be
supplemented by hunting, fishing and trading — Tungus,
(3) The peoples who possess the most numerous herds
of reindeer of all the tundra tribes. These animals are
not tame, they cannot be milked and are not of much use
for transport, but they are bred in large numbers for food
and trade — Chukchis and Koryaks.
(4) Those who have no reindeer and have to support
a miserable existence by hunting, fishing and trading;
they are often dependent on other groups — Chukchis,
Gilyaks, and many remnants of other tribes.
The poverty of the soil and rapid exhaustion of the food
necessitate frequent changes of pasturage. In winter
the herds descend into the plains and valleys ; in summer
they retreat to the hills, partly to escape from the
mosquitoes. Herders of reindeer lead a more wandering
Distribution of Races and Peoples 55
life than other pastors. It is a poor living, ten reindeer
giving only as much milk as one cow.
The Chukchis rarely have more than one wife, who is
earned by working for her for a year or more in the camp
of the prospective father-in-law. The women are treated
as equals, the children are well-behaved, and there is
great family affection. The poorer Ostyaks marry only
one wife, but the rich look upon it as a right to have two
or more. Among them too the children are dutiful, and
there is great family affection. The Samoyad wife has
equal rights with her husband and is treated
There is no government among the Chukchis and no
chiefs other than the fictitious chiefs appointed by the
Russians, who possess no power. The people live in a
state of anarchy, yet the greatest unanimity prevails.
When the Russian Government does not interfere the
grazing grounds are open to all. Reindeer constitute the
real property ; three hundred will suffice for a Lapp
family, a Lapp with a herd of five thousand is a veritable
capitalist; the poorest have only half-a-dozen.
Shamanism is prevalent throughout the district.
The Coast Chukchis have no noteworthy religion ;
among them there is no crime except that committed
under the influence of liquor. The Ostyaks believe that
a dead man continues to lead a spirit life among the
living; his reward is to do good, his punishment to do
evil to his living relatives. Many Samoyads are nominal
Christians so long as things go well with them.
56 The Races of Man
India broadly speaking is divided into three main geogra-
phical areas: — (1) the southern slopes of the Himalaya,
inhabited by broad-headed peoples who possess most of
the character described as " Mongolian ;" (2) the valleys
of the Indus and the Ganges; (3) the Deccan or central
and southern tableland. These areas are inhabited by
dolichocephalic peoples except for a group of brachy-
cephalic peoples who extend in a broad band down the
west coast of India from the lower waters of the Indus to
about latitude 12° N.
The languages fall into three main divisions: —
(1) Aryan (Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakit w 7 ith its modern
derivatives Hindi, Bengali, etc., and Sinhali). (2) Dravid-
ian (Tamil, Telugu, Malayalim, etc.). (3) The Munda
languages belong to the Mon- Khmer family. Schmidt
calls this group of languages Austroasiatic, which with
the Austronesian (Melanesian, Polynesian, Malay, etc.)
form his Austric linguistic family.
When the Aryas entered India from the north-west,
some 2,000 years B.C., they first occupied the fertile
lands of the Punjab; their progress south-west being
barred by the deserts of Raj pu tana they passed into the
valleys of the Jumna and Ganges, where they found the
Naga, yellow peoples who had a snake (cobra) cult.
When they reached the Gandak they encountered the
Dasyu, who were described as dark-coloured,
low-statured, treacherous and foul in manners. The
aboriginal elements were prepotent, and the so-called
Aryan conquest was more social than ethnical, the
Distribution of Races and Peoples 57
spread of the culture was peaceful and intellectual
rather than imposed by conquest (Crooke). The entry
into the Punjab was a very gradual one, probably
extending over centuries.
The Sakas, the Se (Sek) of the Chinese annals,
originally were a horde of pastoral nomads, like the
modern Turkomans, who came from the region between
the Jaxartes (Syr Darya) and west of the country of the
Wusuns (p. 49). About 150 B.C. they were expelled from
their pasture grounds by another horde, the Yueh-chi,
and compelled to migrate southwards. They ultimattly
reached India about 150-140 B.C., probably through the
Pamirs, Gilgit and the Suwat Valley, until they entered
the plains of Peshawar. Another branch advanced
further to the south, perhaps crossed Sind, and occupied
Kathiawar. Pahlavas from Persia and Yavanas
('Asiatic Greeks') also occupied parts of Western India
about this time. A Turki-tribe, the Yiieh-chi, who
occupied lands in the province of Kan-suh in North-
western China, were ousted between 174 and 160 B.C.
by an allied horde, the Hiung-nu, and a multitude of from
half a million to a million persons of all ages and both
sexes migrated westward. They conquered the Wusuns
and drove out the Sakas, whose land they occuplt '
About 140 B.C. the Hiung-nu and Wusuns drove them
southwards to Sogdiana and Bactria, lands to the nonh
and south of the Upper Oxus (Amu Darya). Here they
became a settled nation. Kadphises I., chief of the
Kushan section of the horde, established himself as sole
monarch of the Yueh-chi nation about 45 A.D., and
Kadphises II. extended his dominion about 90-100 A.D.
58 The Races of Man
all over North-western India as far as Benares, but ex-
cluding Sind. The collapse of the Kushan power in India
occurred about 226 A.D. About 455 A.D. an irruption
of savage Hunas poured from the steppes of Central Asia
through the north-west passes and carried devastation
over the plains and crowded cities of India. They were
repulsed by Skandagupta, King of the Gupta Empire, but
the latter succumbed in 470 to fresh invasions of these
White Huns (Ephthalites, Huna, Hoa, or Ye-the), a
brachycephalic polyandric Tatar people. They were
expelled about 528 A.D. by a confederation of Hindu
princes. The arrival of the Turks in the Oxus valley
in the middle of the sixth century changed the
situation completely, and about 565 A.D. the White
Huns were destroyed and the Turks annexed the
whole of the remaining Hun empire. The Gurjaras
probably entered India about the same time as
the White Huns and settled in large numbers in
Rajputana. It is not known whence they came. They
formed kingdoms in early mediaeval times, and many
kings of the powerful Kanauj dynasty were Gurjaras.
The surviving Gujars are primarily a pastoral people,
jaged in agriculture. (Vincent A.
ey there exists in the Kashmir Valley,
Punjab and Rajputana, a definite physical type repre-
sented by the Rajputs and Jats. This type possesses a
dolichocephalic head, straight, finely-cut, leptorrhine
nose, long, narrow face, well-developed forehead, regular
features, tall stature, and light transparent brown skin.
The Rajputs look upon governing and bearing arms as
Distribution of Races and Peoples 59
the proper business of life. No regard is paid to educa-
tion. They are never artisans, and rarely trade. Caste
is not rigid, all Rajputs being theoretically, but not actu-
ally, of one blood. Widows may not remarry. They are
orthodox Hindus with ancestor worship. The Jat is a
sturdy, independent, patient husbandman, peaceable if
unmolested. Those of the western plains are pastors. The
Jats allow widows to remarry. They are Muhammadans
Even the Rajputs cannot claim to be pure Aryans, and
the most ancient clans prove to be very mixed in origin.
In the Punjab we have reigning Brahman families which
became Rajput; in Oudh, Brahmans, Bhars and Ahirs
have all contributed to the Rajput clans, but the majority
appear to have been Aryanised Sudras. Of the clans of
Rajputana some — like the Chauhans, Solankis and
Gehlots — have a foreign origin ; others are allied to the
Indo-Scythic Jats and Gujars ; others represent ancient
ruling families with more or less probability. These
clans, however, acquired a certain homogeneity by con-
stant intermarriage and the adoption of common customs
(J. Kennedy). The well-known clan of Parihar Rajputs
is a branch of the Gurjara or Gujar stock. Most of the
great Rajput clans are descended from foreign immigrants
of the fifth or sixth century A.D., or from indigenous
races such as the Gonds, Bhars, Kols, and the like.
r. A. Smith.)
As soon as the Aryas established themselves in the
lains of the Ganges and Jumna, they mingled with the
borigines, and by stress of the contact caste was
volved, the Code of Manu written, and the elaborate
60 The Races op Man
orthodox ritual built up. Thus was produced the mixed
type of Hindustan and Bihar, with all grades of mixture,
the Aryo-Dravidians of Risley. There are three
divisions : The Babhans of Bihar, a fine manly people
with Aryan type of features, medium height; they
are mesaticephalic and mesorrhine. The territorial
exogamous groups render it probable that they are
a branch of the Rajputs. They are settled agri-
culturists, but will not drive the plough with their
The Chamars of the United Provinces and Bengal have
been largely recruited from non-Aryan elements. They
are of low medium stature, dolichocephalic and platyr-
rhine. They are leather workers and day-labourers.
Polygyny is discouraged. They are a proud and
punctilious people, but are looked upon as impure
because they eat beef, pork, and fowls, and keep pigs.
The Brahmans of the United Provinces are a dolicho-
cephalic, mesorrhine people of medium height.
A zone of relatively broad-headed people extends from
the great grazing country of the Western Punjab through
the Deccan to the Coorgs. Risley supports the view
that this may be the track of the Scythians, who found
their progress east blocked by the Indo-Aryans and so
turned south, mingled with the Dravidian population,
and became the ancestors of the Marathas and Canarese.
But evidence seems to be lacking that the " Scythians"
penetrated far into the Deccan, and apart from brachy-
cephaly there is little to associate these peoples with
Scythians. It seems quite possible that these brachy-
cephals are the result of an unrecorded migration of
Distribution of Races and Peoples 61
some members of the Alpine race from the highlands of
South-west Asia in pre-historic times.
The main element in the modern Mahrattas (Marathas)
is that known as Kunbi or Kurmi, a widespread caste of
cultivators, undoubtedly of " Di avidian " (aboriginal)
origin, numerous throughout the northern plains as far
east as Bengal. The Mahrattas form the higher status
group of this people, to which they have attained by the
same methods as those of the Rajputs in the Punjab.
Even now the difference between the Mahratta and
Kunbi is mainly social. Hinduism prevails, though
totems still survive.
Three other members of this group are: The Prabhus,
a mesaticephalic, mesorrhine people of rather low
stature, who reside chiefly in the districts around
Bombay City, but who originally came from Oudh ;
probably the Gupta dynasty belonged to this stock. The
original occupation was that of the soldier, now they
wield the pen. Polygyny is allowed but is not the rule ;
neither divorce nor remarriage of widows are allowed.
They follow the Vedic form of religion, but arms and
writing materials are worshipped. The Canarese are
mesaticephalic with regular features. They are frank,
independent, intelligent, and fond of show. Formerly
they made wide-ranging forays, adopting guerilla
methods; they were unscrupulous with friend or foe, and
too individualistic to build up a kingdom. The former
fighting middle class now cultivate the soil. Every
family has its guardian or symbol, which was formerly a
totem. The Coorgs, who inhabit the extreme south of
the Bombay Presidency, and speak a Dravidian language,
62 The Races of Man
are a mesaticephalic, mesorrhine people, of medium
height, with light brown skin and straight hair. They
are agriculturists with sporting and fighting proclivities,
and are the finest people in South India,
The pure Veddas of Ceylon are probably the least
modified survivals of the ancient Pre-Dravidian race;
they are a grave but happy people, with a love of liberty,
upright, hospitable, and quiet. Lying and theft are
unknown among them ; they have a great fear of
strangers. They live in rock shelters or simple huts,
and subsist by hunting and collecting honey, etc. After
a death they perform certain dances and rites through a
shaman to the recently departed spirit, and they also
propitiate certain powerful spirits, male and female, by
sacrifices and ceremonial dances. They are strictly
monogamous, and live in detached communities which
have no regular chief. Some of the Pre-Dravidian
tribes of South India are jungle hunters in a state of
savagery, with very little, if any, agriculture; others are
agriculturists, while some are artisans. Some are mono-
gamous, others polygynous. Animism is very widely
spread, but simple forms of Hinduism have been
adopted by the more cultured tribes.
Various stages of culture are met with among the
true Dravidian peoples. Some, like the totemic Bhils of
the north-west Deccan, live mainly on natural produce
but even these are taking to agriculture. The Bhils, the
outcasts of centuries, are contemned by the Hindus and
scorned by the Rajputs; but when a Rajput chief is
installed, it is the despised Bhil who puts the sign of
kingship on his forehead.
Distribution of Races and Peoples 63
Southern India is mainly inhabited by numerous
Dravidian peoples who are grouped linguistically into
Telegu, Tamil, and Malayalim. The Telegu (Telinga,
Kalinga, or Klings) extend over the Coromandel coast,
the northern half of the Madras Presidency, and
Hyderabad. Thurston has recently shown that the
Telegu of the north-east have an average cephalic
index of about seventy - eight, showing that
so-called "Scythian" mixture has taken place. The
Telegus have superior physique to the Tamils and are
lighter in colour. Formerly they possessed a martial
spirit, founded famous kingdoms, and sent colonists to
the East; now the Madrasi is a man of peace, an agri-
culturist and shopkeeper. The Tamils occupy most of
the southern half of Madras Presidency and the north of
Ceylon. The Nayars form the bulk of the Sudra popula-
tion of Malabar. They are described as frank, affection-
ate, hospitable, industrious, with reverence for authority.
They are not strict vegetarians. Malabar is the most
literate country in all India, and almost every Nayar girl
goes to school. These people were the swordsmen, the
military caste of the west coast of India. There are
numerous divisions which may or may not be endogamous,
but the mother-right kinship groups (Taravad) are strictly
exogamous. Very young girls are married symbolically
with a ceremony at which the Tali is tied ; the true
marriage to another man is a simple affair. In South
Malabar the woman never lives in her husband's house,
but she does so in North Malabar; the relations between
the sexes are not influenced by considerations of property.
A good deal of license is allowed by some groups, others
64 The Races of Man
are strictly monogamous; polyandry certainly occurred
formerly, as it still does amongst other Malabar castes.
In Malabar the most abstract religion of South India is
mingled with the most primitive ; serpent worship occurs.
The Todas of the Nilgiri Hills are somewhat aberrant.
They are strong, agile, intelligent, dignified, and cheerful.
They are fully clothed, and are without weapons. They
live a simple pastoral life and are concerned solely with
the care of the dairy. They form a typical polyandrous
community; when a woman marries it is understood that
she becomes the wife of her husband's brothers (own or
clan). Recently there is a tendency for polyandry to be
associated with polygyny. Descent is patrilineal with
few traces of mother-right. " It is doubtful whether
crime can be said to exist among the Todas, they have a
code of offences against the dairy, but these must be con-
sidered as sins rather than as crimes " (Rivers). Gods
once believed to be active and living among men have
become shadowy beings ; there is no proof that the buffalo
was ever regarded as a god ; ritual has killed the spirit
of religion and in its turn is becoming perfunctory.
Corpses are burnt.
The Munda-speaking peoples are a very ancient element
in the population and appear to have been the original
inhabitants of the valley of the Ganges in Western
Bengal ; after many wanderings they settled mainly in
Chota Nagpur. Everywhere they have been more or less
modified by the Dravidians, and while scattered relics of
the languages are preserved, the original physical type
appears to have been assimilated to that of the Dravid-
ians, but perhaps it was originally a closely-allied type.
Distribution of Races and Peoples 65
They may belong to the primitive Indonesian race. The
more important tribes are the Mundas, Bhumij, Ho,
jfuangs, etc. Most are divided into exogamous septs,
probably originally totemic. There is a vague supreme
sun-god; human sacrifices were once offered. Memorial
stones are erected.
In Western Bengal the " Dravidian " element is more
prominent in the population, but this is modified towards
the east, and in Eastern Bengal Mongoloid characters
predominate. The latter are the " Mongolo-Dravidians "
of Risley. The majority of the people are agricultural.
From very early times inhabitants of India proper
migrated into the rich alluvial plains of Assam, many of
whom mixed with the aboriginal population to form the
" semi-Hinduized aborigines." Muhammadans are also
especially numerous in the plains south of the Khasi
hills. The Hinduized Meithis or ManipuH are a mixed
people sprung from the Kukis in the south, the Nagas in
the north, and Shan and Burmese in the east.
The first Indo-Chinese invasion appears to have been
by Tibeto-Burmans. At the end of the 8th Century a.d.
the Shews began to conquer Assam. King Chukupha
(A.D. 1228) assumed for himself and people the name of
Aham, the peerless ; this is now softened to Assam. His
successor adopted the Hindu religion, and the Aham
Shans grew to be regarded as a new division of the
Hindu Assamese population. This dynasty was over-
thrown in 1810 by the Burmese; when various branches
66 The Races of Man
of the Tai or Shan stock, such as the Khamtis, Phakis
and Kamjangs, came into the country. The A hams or
Hindu Assamese are a strong, healthy race, now mostly
poor cultivators; they are generally tall, and lighter than
the Bengalis, with a flat face, high cheek bones, black
and coarse hair, and scanty beard ; they are divided into
castes ; they bury their dead.
The hills were occupied by the British to protect the
plains from the raids of the hill-tribes, who, from an
ethnological point of view, form the most interesting
section of the people.
The Lusheis (sometimes called Kukis) of the Lushai
Hills are a short Mongoloid people; who live in villages
under an independent chief, but the people are very
democratic. Rice is seldom cultivated on the same land
two years running. The villages, which are on the tops
of hills, are frequently removed. The houses are built
on piles. There is a large house for young men and
guests. They are only head-hunters incidentally. They
believe in a supreme being, but the numerous spirits are
The Khasis of the Khasi Hills are distinctly Mongoloid.
An immense number of exogamous septs, some totemic.
Mother-right obtains, and males can own only self-
acquired property. They worship ancestors, natural
forces, and deities. Monoliths are often erected as
cenotaphs, and there are numerous other stone
erections. Their language belongs to the Mon-Khmer
family, and is closely allied to the Palaung-Wa dialects
The Nagas " more closely resemble the natives of the
Distribution of Races and Pboples 67
Malayan Archipelago than any of the other races
inhabiting the hills or plains of India and Assam "
(Furness). The villages are on hill tops, with no marked
tribal unity. Each village is divided into endogamous
groups (khel) which contain several exogamous septs,
but the latter may be scattered through several villages.
Each khel (except among the Sema and Angami tribes)
has its bachelors' house. Descent is reckoned through
the father. They are monogamous. All are head-
hunters. Mother-right obtains among the Garos and
The Chiiigpos or Singplws arrived in Assam from the
east of the upper waters of the Irawadi about 1793 A.D.
They are the same people as the Chingpaw, Kachin or
Kakhyen of North Burma, with tawny yellow to brown
complexions, and marked Mongolian features. For
several generations they were the terror of the country,
carrying off people into slavery. Polygyny prevails.
They have a confused notion of a supreme being, but
propitiate only three malignant spirits or nhats.
The Mishmis of the extreme north-east are constantly
on the move in their trading expeditions. They attend
to cultivation less than their neighbours, and count riches
by the number of their half-wild cattle and their wives;
the cattle are not used for agricultural purposes or for
milk. Some have " almost Aryan features," and they
are probably allied to the Mantse, a pre-Chinese people
of South China, who originally came from the west.
68 The Races of Man
The original population may be represented by the
Selung, the nomadic fishers of the Mergui Archipelago,
who have no fixed villages and do not cultivate the soil.
The men are below average size, vary from light to
dark brown, and have long, lank black hair. They are
regarded as being of Indonesian race, but there seems to
be a Proto -Malay mixture.
All the other peoples belong to the Indo-Chinese popu-
lation and are grouped into Mon-Khmer, Tibcto-Burman
and Siamese-Chinese sub-families. Probably 2,000-3,000
years ago the coast was occupied by Indonesians and
the interior by tribes speaking Mon-Khmer languages.
From the North came the ancestors of the
Tibeto-Burman and Tai peoples, who within the
last fifteen centuries have flooded indo-China with
successive swarms of conquerors and have received
through Mon and Khmer channels a varnish of Indian
Some believe that the Mon were the earlier settled
race to whom the Talaing (Telinga or Klings) brought a
civilisation from India about 1,000 B.C. The fused race is
now known by either name. In dress and customs they
resemble the Burmans. To this group belong the peace-
ful, avaricious, sanctimonious Palanng of the Shan States;
and the Wa tribes of the north-east frontier, who are
brave, energetic, independent, un mercenary. The dark
wild Wa are prosperous headhunters, who collect skulls
as a protection against evil spirits, and are not habitual
cannibals. The poor tame Wa are lighter in colour.
Distribution of Races and Peoples 69
The earliest seat of the Tibeto-Burman speaking peoples
appears to have been the head-waters of the Yang-tse-
Kiang. There is no proof that the Burmans reached the
Irawadi Valley before 600 B.C. In the ninth century
A.D. Burmans occupied the greater part of Upper Burma
and the Mon were on the lower Irawadi, Sitang, and
Salwin (the Khmer were then at the height of their
power, with magnificent towns and temples in Cambodia).
In the fourteenth century A.D. the Tai moved from Tali,
overran North Burma and forced the Burmans down on
the Mons. After much fighting, with varying successes,
the Burmans merged with the Mons in the sixteenth
century. The Burmans have marked Mongoloid char-
acters. They are the most engaging race in the east, the
men are unbusinesslike and courteous, with a great sense
of humour, great pride of race and self-reliance, brave, but
not fool-hardy. The Burmese nature is so essentially
democratic that there is no indigenous caste system.
The Burman is essentially an agriculturalist, but is lazy;
they dress in brilliant colours. They live chiefly on rice
with a few condiments and drink water. Their houses are
of wood or bamboo and raised on posts ; but have masonry
pagodas and temples. There are very numerous
monasteries. The Burmans most nearly of all Buddhists
follow the teaching of Buddha. No Burman is considered
a human being till he has put on the yellow robe for a
longer or shorter period; but their Buddhism is super-
ficial, it being superimposed on an earlier and still strong
belief in spirits (nats) ; and animism prevails every where.
The Chingpaw, Chlngpo, Kakhyen, or Kachin of the
extreme north are constantly moving southwards. They
70 The Races of Man
are pugnacious, vindictive, stiff-necked people, with a
constant tendency to disintegration. The Chingpaw
exhibit two types : one markedly Mongoloid, the other
" much finer, with regular Caucasic features, long oval
face, pointed chin, aquiline nose" (Keane).
The Siamese-Chinese linguistic group comprises Tai
or Shan, and the Karens. The Tai first appear in history
in Yun-nan, south-west China, and early, small swarms of
them entered Burma 2,000 years ago ; the foundation of
the Tai principalities in the Salwin Valley took place
about the third century A.D. ; a great wave of immigra-
tion occurred in the sixth century; they peopled the Shan
States. When the ' Mongol ' hordes under Kublai Khan
in the latter half of the thirteenth century conquered
% Indo-China, the Tai went westward and supplied kings to
North Burma for two centuries. The Shans of Eastern
Burma resemble the Burmans, but are fairer, mild and
good-humoured; technically are fervent Buddhists.
Their tendency has always been to fritter away their
strength, as are always swarming. The Karen clans were
driven south from China by the Tai, and later were
driven back into the hills of the south-east by the Mons
and the Burmans. There are two types, the White and
Red Karens; sturdy race, straight black and brownish
hair, black and hazel eyes ; " here also a Caucasic strain
may be suspected" (Keane).
The Negritoes of Asia.
Flower regards them " as representing an infantile,
undeveloped, or primitive form of the type from which
the African Negroes on the one hand, and the Melane-
Distribution of Races and Peoples 71
sians on the other, with all their various modifications,
may have sprung up."
The inhabitants of the Andaman Islands were said to
be formerly virtuous, modest, honest and frank. Con-
jugal fidelity was the absolute rule, and divorce was
formerly unknown. The women are on a footing of
equality with the men and do their full share of work.
The Andamanese have a sense of humour. They express
any emotion whether of joy or sorrow by loud weeping.
They live mainly on fish, wild yams, turtle, pig and
honey. Their food is mostly eaten cooked. The men
are hunters and collectors and do not till the soil, nor do
they keep domestic animals. The men go nude, the
women wear a small leaf apron ; both sexes wear a
number of ornaments.
They live in small encampments round an oval dancing
ground, their huts being constructed of branches and
leaves. Bows and arrows are used for hunting and fish-
ing ; all their original implements were made of wood,
bone or shell. They make canoes some of which have
outriggers, but they never venture far from the shore.
Pottery is made by the men.
There is no organised polity in the Andamanese com-
munity. There is generally one man who excels the rest
in hunting, warfare, wisdom, and kindliness, and he is
deferred to and becomes in a sense chief. A regular feature
of Andamanese social life is the meeting at intervals
between two or more communitcs. Marriage is strictly
72 The Races of Man
The Andamanese have a system of taboos on certain
foods, notably turtle and pig, at those periods of life
which they regard as critical. Disease and death are
attributed to the spirits of jungle and sea, and after a
death has taken place the camping place will be aban-
doned for a fresh site. The Andamanese religious system
is exceedingly primitive. There are certain spirits of sea
and jungle whom they must avoid vexing ; chief of these
is Biliku who controls the weather. Biliku is generally
regarded as feminine and the north-east wind belongs to
her, while her male counterpart Tarai owns the south-west
wind. The spirits of the dead are believed by some tribes
to haunt the jungle or the sea, and by others to repair to
a place below the earth where there is a jungle.
Semang of the Malay Peninsula.
The Semang are a nomadic people living by collecting
and hunting ; the wilder ones will often not remain longer
than three days in one place. Very few have taken to
agriculture. Their clothing consists of a girdle of leaves
or a loin-cloth of tree bark. Their distinctive weapon is
the bow with poisoned arrows. They are strictly mono-
gamous and both sexes are faithful.
There is a chief of each tribe who acts as chief
medicine-man and exercises authority like the head of a
family. All men are on an equal footing. Crime is rare ;
theft is punished by a fine. All property is held in
common. Barter in jungle produce is carried on with
A child is named after the tree near which it is born,
the fruit of that tree being taboo to it. They have no
Distribution of Races and Peoples 73
great fear of the ghosts of the deceased. They have
vague kind of deities, but there is no trace of an actual
cult. They recognise the thunder god, Kari, who is the
creator of most things and the judge of men.
The Aket (Orang Raket), eastern of Sumatra, are
closely allied to the Semang (Moszkowski).
Aetas of the Philippines.
The Aetas or Aitas are an indolent, timid and peaceful
people, but become fierce and violent under provocation.
They are somewhat inclined to be mischievous and
thievish. They are fond of music and dances. They
live mainly on game, fish, wild honey and forest products.
One tribe file the front teeth to a point. Both men
and women are scarified in certain parts of the body,
but not tattooed. Various ornaments are worn. The
women have bamboo combs thrust into their hair ; these
are decorated with scratch-work patterns, and often
plumes of hair and coloured feathers are attached to
these. The men often wear circlets of boars' bristles
round their calves. The normal dress of the men and
boys is a perineal band of bark or cloth, that of the
women a short skirt of the same.
They are nomadic in habits, and live in rapidly con-
structed huts with roofs of leaves or grass, beneath which
will perhaps be sleeping platforms of poles. Their
weapons are bows with poisoned arrows, and lances.
They wander about in bands of fifty or more. Monogamy
is the general rule, but polygyny may be indulged in if an
individual has sufficient wealth. The dead are buried in
the ground with more or less elaborate ceremonies.
74 The Races op Man
In the north of the Malay Peninsula peoples of Indo-
Chinese extraction prevail ; in the south three distinct
races are represented : Negrito (Semang), Pre
Dravidian (Sakai), and Indo-Chinese (Malay).
The Semang have already been described. The Sakai
or Senoi are largely nomadic, their agriculture being of
the most primitive description, for which they usually
employ a digging-stick; they frequently live in tree-huts
or other temporary shelters. Men still wear the tree-
bark loincloth and the women a tree-bark wrapper, but
now both frequently wear Malay clothing. Their distinc-
tive weapon is the blow pipe, which they have brought to
a great perfection. They are strict in the observance of
the marriage tie. They have the greatest possible fear
of death, or rather of the ghost of the deceased, and seem
to have a kind of deity.
A third main element in the southern portion of the
Malay Peninsula is that comprised by the ' Savage
Malays ' or Jakun, many of which have mixed with
Semangs and Sakais. They may be grouped under
Orang Bukit (Land people) and Orang Laid (Sea people).
Their skin is darker and their stature slightly shorter
than that of the true Malays. They are largely nomadic,
though the Land Jakun usually practise some form of
agriculture; their clothing is like that of the Malays but
scantier; they file their teeth but do not circumcise. The
universal weapon of the jungle tribes is the blow-pipe
with poisoned darts. The small huts are built on piles.
They trade jungle produce with the Malays who oppress
Distribution of Races and Peoples 75
them. The Orang Laut are nomadic fishers, who occa-
sionally live in temporary huts built on the ground, when
they have occasion to build boats, mend nets, or collect
dammar, etc. The Jakun, unlike the Malay, is hospitable
and generous; childlike, and proud, he hates and fears
the Malay, though he has to trade with him. The
Malays despise and fear the Jakun, and attribute to them
supernatural power and an unlimited knowledge of the
secrets of nature. The Jakun acknowledge a supreme
being, but are pagans, and devoutly believe in hantu
(spirits and demons).
The true Malay, who call themselves Orang Malayu,
speak the standard, but quite modern, iMalay language,
and are all Muhammadans. Originally they were an
obscure tribe who rose to power in the Menangkabau
district, Sumatra, not before the twelfth century, and
whose migrations date only from about the year 1 160 A.D.
(Keane). At this time Singapore was founded by them,
when they professed some form of Hinduism; they were
converted to Islam about the middle of the thirteenth
century. The Malay is naturally of an easy-going,
indolent character, deliberate, reserved and taciturn.
The upper classes are exceedingly courteous, yet with
this outward refinement they have the most pitiless
cruelty and contempt of human life. They are false,
wily, and very frugal. ' The patriotism, self-respect,
reverence for immemorial law, loyalty to their rulers,
traditions of courtesy and love of study for its own sake
— things that contain the germ of national progress '
are admirable (Wilkinson). Nominally they are Moslems
of the Sunnite sect, but lack the fanaticism of that
76 The Races of Man
religion; owing to their conservatism they are unwilling
to give up any cult that they can possibly retain under a
Muhammadan disguise, their demonology being made up
of the strata of several successive religions.
The natives of Borneo may be taken as a fair example
of the distribution of races in the East Indian Archipel-
ago, although, naturally, the conditions vary in different
So far as our present knowledge goes, apart from
obvious foreigners, there are only two races in Borneo, the
dolichocephalic Indonesian and the brachycephalic Proto-
Malay, but these are so intermixed that no tribe or people
can be considered as a pure representative of either.
The skin colour of the Borneans may be described as
buff, in some quite light, in others light brown. The hair
is usually wavy, and black with a reddish tinge. The
stature varies from 1.42m. (4ft. 8in.) to 1.73m. (5ft. 8in.)
the average being about 1.555m. (5ft. l^in.). Thecephalic
index falls into two groups, 70-79 and 80-89.
Scattered all over the interior, in the dense jungle, are
the nomadic hunters, the Punans, Bakatans, Ukits, etc.
The few wants of these mild and unwarlike savages are
supplied by barter from friendly settled peoples. They
are low brachycephals and may represent an aboriginal
There are numerous, scattered, usually weak tribes,
such as the Land Dayaks, Malanau, Kalabit, Dusun, and
Murut, who, taken as a whole, are dolichocephals.
Distribution of Races and Peoplbs 77
They cultivate the soil, and are an amiable people, though
given to head-hunting. The name Kalamantan has been
given to this group of tribes.
Occupying the more favourable inland country is the
Kenyah-Kayan group, average cephalic index 80. They
are a very energetic people who are extending their sway.
They are well organised, have powerful chiefs, and smelt
iron. They also are head-hunters.
The Iban, or Sea Dayaks were originally a small coastal
tribe, but through their truculence they have spread
inland ; they are slightly darker than the inland people
and have average cephalic index 83. Although
essentially an agricultural people, they are warlike, and
passionately devoted to head-hunting. It is probable
that the Iban belongs to the same stock as the true
Malay and his migration into Borneo may be regarded as
the first wave of the movement that culminated in the
With the exception of the first group, all these peoples
are agriculturists, living mainly on rice, which is usually
grown on dry ground, but swamp rice is grown in the
lowlands. They hunt all land animals which serve as food,
and are fond of fish. They all live in long communal
houses situated on the banks of the rivers. Some weave
cotton cloths, those of the Iban being particularly beauti-
ful. All are artistic. Their languages belong to the
Indonesian group of the Austro-Asiatic division of the
Austric family of languages.
All their actions are regulated by omen animals, most
of which are birds, who are possessed with the spirit of
certain invisible beings above and bear their names, but
78 The Races of Man
the gods themselves are vague owing to the importance
of their messengers. The Iban believe in individual
The true Malays probably emigrated from the Malay
Peninsula, they never penetrated into the interior, but
certain coastal people have partly absorbed the Malay
culture, spirit, and religion.
The Chinese have long traded in Borneo, but they do
not appear to have materially modified the population.
Western Borneo has, however, been affected by the
So far as is known there is no indication in Borneo of
a Negrito population, such as occurs in the Philippines
and the Malay Peninsula, nor of a Vedda-like (Pre-
Dravidian) element, such as P. Sarasin has recently
found among Toala in Celebes, and Moszkowski among
the Batin of Sumatra.
Distribution of Races and Pboplbs 79
It is a very difficult matter, with the facts at our dis-
posal, to make a satisfactory classification of the
American Indians, or Amerinds as they are sometimes
termed. Usually the various peoples are grouped on a
linguistic basis, but this system breaks down in California,
where a large number of linguistic stocks are recognised
without, however, there being a corresponding variation
in physical type. A classification based on physical
characters has already been given (pages 18, 19), but it
also is unsatisfactory. A third method is based on
geographical areas; this is convenient from a cultural
point of view, and for lack of anything better this
arrangement is provisionally adopted.
On geographical and cultural grounds the Indians of
North America may be divided into the following groups :
I. — Eskimo.
II. — Tribes of the north Pacific coast.
III. — Tribes of the northern interior (the Mackenzie
River basin and the high plateaus).
IV. — Tribes of the lower Pacific coast (Columbia River
V. — Tribes of the great plains.
VI. — Northern and southern tribes of the eastern
VII. — Tribes of the south-west and of Mexico.
80 The Races of Man
Eskimo or Innuits.
The Eskimo are free, independent, happy, and ex-
tremely gentle in character; wrangling and fighting are
unknown among them. Crimes, if committed, go
unpunished. Their women are treated as equals,
They are essentially a littoral people, living primarily
on sea mammals ; reindeer and other animals are hunted ;
vegetable diet is inconsiderable. The whole community
shifts its locality according to the season. In winter the
houses of the northern and eastern tribes are hemi-
spherical in form and built of snow, in summer of skins.
The winter houses of the western Eskimo are of logs
covered over with earth. Their clothes consist of skins,
and they make use of dog-sledges and skin canoes con-
structed on bone or wooden frameworks. They are
clever carvers in bone and ivory and illustrate daily events
by engravings on bone, and the Aleutian Islanders in par-
ticular excel in basketry. They are extremely musical.
The social organisation is based on the immediate
family. Polygyny and polyandry occur though monogamy
is the rule. The people group together in villages, but
there is no sort of recognised authority; custom is the
only law. All property, except clothes, hunting appliances,
and sewing implements of the women, is the common
possession of one or at most three families. Personal
property generally descends to the eldest son, who is
bound to provide for the rest of the family; among the
western Eskimo it is divided among the children, the
youngest son receiving the best weapons.
I - .> ...
» © • *
Plat j IX.]
[Races of Man, p. 8o
< a i
Distribution of Races and Peoples 81
In religion shamanism is the rule, with a belief in
guardian and hostile spirits. The shaman is termed
" angekok," and may be of either sex. One spirit tends
to predominate and to become the centre of the
mythology. The western Eskimo attaeh great importance
to the shades of deceased friends and also of animals.
North Pacific Tribes.
All the North Pacific tribes live by fishing ; river
salmon and deep-sea fish are caught. Many are also
hunters, and the women collect roots and berries. They
make use of dug-outs, and their tackle consists of fish-
hooks, spears, nets and lines. They build houses of cedar
planks with roofs of bark, and part of the year is passed
in permanent villages. Their industries are based largely
on the yellow and red cedar. They have simple basketry,
and stone implements, which are not chipped, and are
frequently made of slate. Their decorative art is highly
conventionalised and very characteristic.
The Tlingit and Haida are divided into two exogamous
moieties, the Tsimshian into four groups, which are to a
limited extent totemic. The sub-groups are local,
originally exogamic village communities of mainly
matrilineal blood relatives. This system is less rigid
among the southern peoples. Among the Kwakiutl a
child belongs by blood to both father's and mother's
family, but descent is practically matrilineal ; clan-legend
and crest constitute title to property for men, and these
are not inherited but acquired by marriage. The village
communities are mainly exogamic. There are four
classes of society-^chiefs, nobles, common people, and
82 The Races of Man
slaves. During the summer months society is organised
on a totemic sept system ; during the winter ceremonial
season the place of the sept is taken by a number of
societies, namely the groups of all those individuals upon
whom the same or almost the same power or secret has
been bestowed by one of the spirits.
They have a highly developed system of barter of which
the blanket is now the unit of value, formerly the units
were elk-skins, canoes and slaves; certain symbolic
objects have attained fanciful values. A vast credit
system has grown up, based on the custom of loaning
property; the festival at which this occurs is called
The religion of these peoples is bound up with their belief
in animal helpers. Supernatural aid is given by the spirits
to those who win their favour. The Kwakiutl believe
their clans to have been founded by ancestors who had
certain relations with supernatural beings and obtained
from them crests, names, dances, etc. These spirits are
supposed to visit the people every year.
The raven is the chief figure in the mythology of this
region ; he regulates the phenomena of nature, procures
fire, daylight and freshwater, and teaches men the arts.
In some places the mink assumes this role, or the bluejay.
Indians of the Northern Interior, or Athapascans.
These tribes are more correctly termed Dene. The
northern Dene are timid, cowardly, honest, and formerly
chaste; the southern are more manly. All are by neces-
sity hunting and fishing peoples, but the northern tribes
are among the most primitive of all American stocks.
[Races of Man.
Distribution of Races and Peoples 83
These make rude pottery and weave a sort of cloth. The
eastern Dene are patrilineal, nomad hunters, who gather
berries and roots. The western are semi-sedentary
owing to the abundance of salmon ; they are divided into
exogamous, matrilineal, totemic clans. There is a belief
in guardian spirits, and shamanism obtains. The
mythology almost always refers to a " transformer "
who visited the world when incomplete and set things
Tribes of the Pacific Coast.
The Salish tribes are closely allied to the Athapascans.
The coastal Salish have abundance of fish, especially
salmon; they have reached considerable prosperity and
are lavish in their display of wealth. The advantage of
location and facility of communication by canoes enabled
them to become relatively civilised, as is shown by their
social organisation with its rigid castes, their village life,
secret societies and greater skill in decorative art.
The plateau Salish are more democratic, less settled,
and more individualistic in religious matters than the
coastal. The previous totemism is largely replaced by a
belief in supernatural helpers, personifications of ' sulia,'
or that mystery which prevades North American religion.
The system of obtaining supernatural aid is more
developed on the coast, where the ' sulia ' becomes
hereditary in families, and its emblem persists as the
The Californian tribes fall, both culturally and linguis-
tically into three groups, of which the central is much
the largest, the culture of that area being more general in
84 The Races of Man
type. These tribes are characterised by their use of
the acorn for food and the absence of the canoe. The
chief tribe of this group, the Maidu, practises an annual
ceremony of " burning," when the property of those who
have died within the past five years is destroyed so that
the articles may pass to the spirit world for use by the
owner. The north-western and south-western groups
are mainly differentiated from the central by their
dependence on fish for food, and by the extensive use of
South of the Salish, and east of the Californian areas
lie the Shahaptian and the vast Shoshonean tracts of
country, the latter extending to the coast in the south of
California. The culture of these peoples is distinguished
by an extremely loose social organisation, lack of elabor-
ate ceremonials, a completely different style of art, and^
possibly, a mythology rather resembling that of the tribes
of the east than the north-west coast type (Farrand).
The Lower Californians belong to the Yuman family ;
they are a collecting people of very low stage of cultural
and linguistic development.
The Seri of north-west Mexico are the least advanced
and most isolated tribe in North America. Their most
esteemed virtue is shedding alien blood, and their
blackest crime is alien marriage. Mother-right obtains
perhaps to a greater extent than in any known people,
and it is only in the chase or on the war-path that men
come to the front. Polygyny prevails. The tribe is com-
posed of exogamic, m at ri lineal, totemic clans. Most of
their food is eaten raw ; they do not cultivate the soil, and
the dog is the only domestic animal. Their houses are
Distribution of Races and Peoples 85
flimsy huts. They make pottery, and rafts of canes.
Bows and arrows are extensively used ; there is no knife.
Tribes of the Great Plains.
These tribes contain representatives of various stocks,
but chiefly Siouan, Caddoan or Pawnee, Algonquian and
Kiowan. The Sioux may serve as typical. They were a
free and dominant race of hunters and warriors, neces-
sarily strong and active. Their habits centred round the
buffalo, which provided the staple materials of nutrition
and industry. The dog was domesticated before the
horse was acquired in the eighteenth century. They also
made use of nuts, berries and roots for food, but did not
cultivate the soil to any extent. Their houses consisted
of tent-shaped huts of saplings covered with brush, bark
or skins when in the woodlands ; on the plains earth
lodges were built for winter, and tipis, or tents of long
poles covered with skin, or in later times canvas, for
summer. Their weapons were tomahawk, club, flint
knife, and bow and arrow ; they were made of stone,
wood, bone and horn. Rude pottery and basketry were
made but wood and skins were the raw materials of
domestic appliances. Drawing and painting were done on
prepared buffalo skins, and elaborately carved pipes were
made for ceremonial use.
The Sioux were divided into kinship groups, with
inheritance as a rule in the male line. The woman was
autocrat of the home. Exogamy was strictly enforced in
the clan, but marriage within the tribe or with related
tribes was encouraged. The marriage was arranged by
the parents, and polygyny was common where means
85 The Races of Man
would permit. Government consisted in chieftainship
acquired by personal merit. The older men exercised
Ownership of land was vested in the group who
occupied it. Food was shared in common, the procurer
having special privileges. Huts, dogs, weapons, etc.,
were personal property, and such possessions were
destroyed at the death of the owner to provide for his
wants in the spirit-world.
Their religious conceptions were based upon a belief
in " Wakanda " or " Manitou," an all-pervadir^
spiritual entity, whose cult involved various shamanistic
ceremonials consisting of dancing, chanting, feasting and
fasting. Most distinctive of these was the sun-dance,
practised by almost all the tribes of the plains except the
Comanche. It was an annual festival in honour of the sun
lasting four days, characterised in the later stages by
The Pawnee tribes were probably of southern origin.
They were more addicted to agriculture than the Sioux,
raising crops of maize, pumpkins and squashes. The
Pawnee type of hut was characteristic, consisting of a
circular framework of poles or logs covered with bush,
bark and earth. They were divided into kinship groups,
distinguished by totems, and inheritance was in the male
line. The tribes were divided into bands under a chief,
whose office was hereditary in the male line and whose
power was more absolute than usual among Indians. Their
religious ceremonials were similar to but more elaborate
than those of the Sioux, and were formerly distinguished
by human sacrifices to the morning star at the annual
on of Races and Peoples 87
corn-planting, the victim being usually a captive girl from
a hostile tribe (Farrand).
Northern Tribes of the Eastern Woodlands.
These consist of Algonquians and Iroquois. The
Ojibwa, the chief central Algonquian tribe, were a typical
people of the woods. The northern branch were mild,
harmless hunters, the southern led a sort of sedentary
life part of the time ; maize, pumpkins, and beans were
cultivated, and wild rice collected ; much of the food was
obtained by hunting and fishing. They were hard
fighters and beat back the raids of the Iroquois on the
east and of the Foxes on the south, and drove the Sioux
before them out of the plains. They were organised in
many exogamous clans ; descent was patrilineal, though
matrilineal in most of the other tribes. The clan system
was totemic. There was a clan chief and generally a
tribal chief as well, chosen from one clan in which the
office was hereditary. His authority was rather
indefinite. As regards the religion of this group "there
was a firm belief in a cosmic mystery present through-
out all Nature; it was called Manitou. It was natural to
identify the Manitou with both animate and inanimate
objects, and the impulse was strong to enter into
personal relation with the mystic power. There was one
personification of the cosmic mystery, it was into an
animate being called the Great Manitou " (VV. Jones).
The famous League of the Iroquois was formed
between 1400 and 1450 A.D. Each of the five tribes
remained independent in matters of local concern, but
supreme authority was delegated to a council of elected
83 The Races op Man
sachems. So successful was this confederacy that for
l centuries it enjoyed complete supremacy over its neigh-
's bours, until it controlled the country from Hudson Bay
. to North Carolina. The powerful Ojibwa at the east of
Lake Superior checked their north-western expansion,
and their own kindred, the Cherokee, stopped their pro-
gress southwards. The Hurons were practically wiped
out by them. They lived in " long houses " of related
families, over which a matron presided; they afford
an exceedingly good example of mother-right. The clans
(i;ens of Morgan), which were always exogamous, were
organised into phratries, which were also originally
exogamous, but this restriction has long since been
removed except in the case of the clans. The phratries
had no strictly governmental functions, and appear chiefly
in religious ceremonies and games.
Tribes of the South-west.
These may be grouped into two classes according to
their mode of living — pueblo and non-pueblo peoples. A
•'pueblo" is a village of a communal type consisting of
houses of five or six storeys arranged along courts or
passageways, each storey being a separate residence,
often reached from the roof of the one below. The
Pueblo Indians are muscular and capable of great
endurance, being able to carry heavy burdens and walk
and run' for long distances. They are mild and peace-
able in disposition, industrious, and intensely conservative
in their customs. They depend mainly on agriculture,
raising crops of corn, cotton, melons, beans, tobacco,
peaches, etc. The men do spinning, weaving, and knitting,
Distribution of Races and Peoples 89
and make cotton and woollen garments. The women
build and own the houses, grind the meal, prepare the
food, and carry the water ; in addition they make pottery
which has become famous for its quality and decoration.
Each pueblo village has a peace-chief or governor and
councillors, and a war-chief. The clans are numerous
and form the entire basis of their social and religious
organisation. Marriage is monogamous, the children
belonging to the mother's clan and the daughters
inheriting her property. Private property in land is not
The Pueblo Indians are very religious, much of their
time being spent in elaborate ceremonials which are very
complex, sometimes lasting over a week. These are
controlled by secret societies or priesthoods, of which
there are several in each village. The purpose of the
ceremonies is to obtain rain, the very existence of the
Pueblo Indians being dependent on the crops, notably
The greater part of southern Central America is
inhabited by the Maya race, a branch of which formerly
extended on to the plateau of Mexico, and was known as
the Toltecs. North and south of these latter were, and to
some extent still are, the Otomi, Tarasco, Mistcca, and
Zapoteca peoples. A thousand years ago the western
half of Northern Mexico was occupied by the Nahua,
one tribe of whom, the Aztecs, pressed the aboriginal
population of Southern Mexico before them, and
90 The Races of Man
established themselves on the plateau, where they
founded the city of Mexico. The Toltecs disappeared as
such, but their culture was assimilated by the ruder
Aztecs; the descendants of the former are still to be
found in Guatemala and Yucatan, and are now merged
among their Maya kinsfolk. The remarkable culture
that the Spaniards found in Mexico was due mainly to
the intelligent and gifted Maya peoples ; it was entirely
indigenous, and owed nothing to the culture of the
Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Arizona, or to the
civilisations of the Andean regions of South America.
The Nahua or Nahuatlaca appear to have come originally
from the far north.
Following Deniker the natives may be grouped accord-
ing to the four great natural regions: — (1) the Cordillera
of the Andes; (2) the plains of the Amazon and the
Orinoco, with Guiana; (3) the table-lands of eastern and
southern Brazil ; (4) the Pampas of the southern part of
the continent, with Tierra del Fuego.
The Cordillera of the Andes.
The ancient Andean civilisation was the highest
expression of South American culture. The peoples of
this region consist mainly of members of the Chibcha
and Quichua linguistic families, with a certain number of
unclassified tribes. The most powerful of the former
group were the Muyscas of the Rio Magdalena valley,
who were dominant in the north with an organised
system of government on the Bogota table-land. They
Distribution of Races and Peoples 91
were surrounded by numerous kindred tribes, still in a
condition of savagery. The rigid caste system of the
Muyscas stifled their development, and they are now
The Quichua dialects are still spoken over the area of
the ancient Inca empire, which was almost contiguous in
the north with that of the Muyscas. Three distinct
civilisations had grown up about three cultural centres :
that of the Yuncas (whom Deniker is unable to classify)
developed about Chimu (Trujillo of the present day) ;
that of the Aymaras, a people of Quichuan stock, about
Tiahuanaco on the southern shores of Lake Titicaca;
and that of the Quichuas about Cuzco. Prior to the
arrival of the Europeans, however, the first two had been
absorbed by the third, and the whole area constituted
the empire of the Incas, who were the dominant branch
of the Quichuan nation. The very name " Inca " was
afterwards restricted to the royal family. The Incas also
conquered the Calchaquis, another Quichua-speaking
race, the most numerous and highly civilised of the
former inhabitants of Argentina. The Quichuas are
fairly uniform physically ; they are of low stature,
1-575-1 -6m. (5ft. 2-3in.), thickset and very strong, with
massive globular head, aquiline nose, and retreating
forehead due to cranial deformation.
Among the unclassified Andean peoples mention must
be made of the Araucanians (or Mapu-che) whose
territory extended south of the Peruvian empire, and who
held their own against the Incas and after them the
Conquistadores. They were little organised in time of
peace, and their tribal groups at the present day are mere
92 The Races of Man
territorial divisions, such as Picun-che (north-men),
Huilli-che (south-men), Molu-che (west-men), Puen-che
(pine-men, i.e., people of the central pine country). The
Puel-che (east-men) of the eastern slopes of the Andes
afterwards moved down the Rio Negro and encountered
the Pampean Indians with whom they mingled. The
Araucanians have now adopted the peaceful pursuits of
agriculture and stock-breeding, and the process ot
assimilation, completed in the Chiloe and Chonos
Archipelagoes, is likely to spread on the mainland.
Before dealing with the two next great divisions, which
include the Amazonians and the peoples of eastern
Brazil and of central South America, reference must be
made to the race migrations which have taken place
throughout this vast area. The two chief linguistic sub-
divisions of the Amazonians are the Carib and the
Arawak, while the two main groups of East-Brazilians
are the Tupi-Guarani (or Tupi), and the Ges (or Tapuya).
The original home of the Arawaks was probably Bolivia,
whence they spread east, north-east, and south-east,
forming a uniform substratum over a large part of the
north of South America; their progress was only stayed
where they encountered the Caribs and Tupis. The
Caribs originally inhabited the upper courses of the
Tapajos and other rivers flowing northward into the
lower Amazon, up which they moved to the mouth of the
Amazon. The Tupis peopled the upper basin of the
Paraguay, not far from the original Carib region; they
moved downstream to the Rio de la Plata, turning north-
ward at the mouth and skirting the whole coast of Brazil
Distribution of Races and Peoples 93
till they reached the mouth of the Amazon, There they
met with the Carihs whom they forced to turn north-
wards, while they themselves passed along the southern
bank of the Amazon, the Arawaks being on the northern.
Tupi tribes (Omaguas and Cocamas) even reached as far
west as the Putumayo and the Maranon. The Caribs
pushed the Arawaks before them, ultimately prevailing
from the mouth of the Amazon to the Lago de
Maracaibo. Their conquest of the Arawaks of the
Antilles was arrested at the Discovery. The Ges peoples
lived in Brazil from the earliest times, but took no active
part in history. It is possible that they once extended
all over Brazil from the Amazon watershed to the
Parana, but at the time of the Conquest they only
inhabited the hill country of the interior.
The Plains of the Amazon and the Orinoco
The northern part of South America east of the
Cordilleras is peopled mainly by Caribs and Arawaks,
but about the head-waters of the Amazon and its
tributaries are tribes of the Miranha and Pano linguistic
families, and some unclassified peoples occur there and
in the basin of the Orinoco.
The northern Caribs are l*594m. (5ft 2fin.) in height
with a cephalic index of 81*3 ; those of the Xingu are
taller, l*664m. (5ft. 5 Jin.), with a cephalic index of 79*6.
The Caribs were formerly cannibals, and most ferocious in
their methods of warfare especially towards the Arawaks.
The following ethnical characteristics of the Caribs may
94 The Races of Man
be noted : — the use of the hammocks, painting of the
body, practice of couvade (lying-in of the father after the
birth of a child) ; the chief weapon under primitive con-
ditions is the stone axe, but the northern Caribs use the
blow-pipe and poisoned arrows which are unknown to the
southerners, who use the bow and arrow. The Bakairi
of the upper Xingu are a typical primitive Carib tribe.
They are hunters and fishers, and to some extent agri-
culturists as well. Their clothing is of the slightest, but
they are fond of shell or seed necklaces; their huts are
beehive-shaped ; implements are personal property, but
plantations belong to the community; chieftainship is
hereditary from father to son or to sister's son. They
have very little religion, and their remarkable mask-
dances do not appear to have much ceremonial
The difference between the northern and southern
Avawaks is more pronounced than with the Caribs; those
of Guiana and also of the Purus basin (western Brazil)
are l-55-l-59m. (5ft. l-2^in.) in height, with a cephalic
index of 83-4, while the Arawaks of the Xingu are taller,
l-64m. (5ft. 4 Jin.), and have a cephalic index of 78*2.
The blow-pipe is used only by the upper Amazon tribes ;
garments are of fibre or bark-cloth, and ornaments of
feathers and teeth ; their implements are of wood and
The Pano tribes are in a state of transformation, some
having taken to trading and agriculture. The Miranhas
are a primitive and warlike hunting people, distinguish-
able by their peculiar nose-ornament, large shell studs
being inserted in the nostrils. Among the unclassified
Distribution of Races and Peoples 95
tribes of the Amazon head-waters, the Zaparos (or
Jeberos) are remarkable on account of their shamanistic
religion, and the Jevaros (or Civaros) for their practice
of head-hunting, the scalps of their enemies being
preserved and regarded as valuable trophies.
There are four main linguistic groups of peoples in
Guiana: — Warrau, Arawak, Wapiana (including true
Wapiana, Atorais and Amaripas), and Carib (including
Carinya or true Carib, Ackawoi, Macusi, and Arecuna).
who all belong to the same race. The coast tract is in-
habited by Warraus and Arawaks, with scattered settle-
ments of Carinya. The forest region is almost entirely
inhabited by Ackawoi, with a few Carinya camps. The
savanna region, beginning with the north towards the
Orinoco, is peopled by various tribes: — Arecunas,
Macusis, Wapianas Tarumas (a tribe of unknown
affinities, which came from the south), and an isolated
tribe of Caribs.
The natives are all of small stature; the main
characters are a protuberant stomach from excessive
drinking of paiwari (an intoxicant made by chewing
cassava bread), and sleekness and fulness of skin from
eating cassava. The skin is of a red cinnamon colour,
the hair straight, long and black, the features gentle.
They are weak in constitution. Their habits are
exceptionally cleanly. They are affectionate in domestic
relations, and their women are well treated, and have
considerable influence, but old people are not well
The men are hunters, and the women cultivate cassava.
The clothing of the men is a strip of cloth passed between
96 The Races of Man
the legs and fastened to a belt ; that of the women, an
apron of beads. The houses are built on piles in the
swamps ; in the forests they are usually rectangular,
with a ridge-pole, and roofed with palm leaves. On the
savannas, walls daubed with mud are added. Their
weapons are the bow and arrow, and blow-pipe.
The father is the head of the household, and the chief
authorities in a group are the headman and the peaiman
(or medicine-man). Most tribes are polygynous, but the
Caribs are mainly monogamous; the polygynous Warrau
are also polyandrous. Marriage is mostly a matter of
purchase, and the husband lives with, works for, and is
subject to his father-in-law. Descent is reckoned through
the mother. The custom of carefully tending the father
on the birth of a child (couvade) prevails. Religion
consists mainly in the propitiation of evil spirits by
mediation of the peaiman.
Very scanty information exists on the natives of the
West Indies. The peaceful Arawaks appear to have
been the aboriginal inhabitants, the islands being invaded
later by the piratical and slave-hunting Caribs. St.
Vincent and Dominica were the principal rendezvous of
the insular Caribs, although they occupied all the islands
from Puerto Rico to the Orinoco, and raided at times
Jamaica and San Domingo, but had no permanent
villages north of Jamaica; a few still exist in St. Vincent
and possibly elsewhere. The « Yellow Caribs ' must be
distinguished from the ' Black Caribs' or Karifs, who are
a Carib-Negro mixture.
Distribution of Races and Peoples 97
Eastern and Southern Brazil.
Eastern Brazil is mainly occupied by peoples of the
Ges family, formerly called Tapnyas. This region is
poor in resources, and the people are generally
more backward than the Amazonians. Ethnical
characteristics common to these tribes are: — communal
houses with separate hearths for the various families,
absence of the hammock, ignorance of navigation,
wearing of plugs (botoques) in the lower lip or ears,
arrows barbed on one side. The best known element
in this group is the Botocudo people. They are
nomad hunters and collectors, with implements
of wood and vegetable fibre, living in flimsy huts of
branches. They go nude, and wear the teeth of those
they have eaten strung on necklaces. They are cannibals,
eating both enemies and fellow tribesmen. Their women
are brutally treated. They are of low stature, l*59m.
(5ft. 2^in.), and have relatively narrow heads, their
cephalic index varying from about 76 to 78. Many of
the Brazilian tribes have dwindled to a few individuals
living under the protection of the white man.
Tupi tribes speaking various dialects occur in different
parts from Guiana to Paraguay, and from the coast of
Brazil to the Cordilleras. At the time of the Conquest
they were cannibals occupying the Atlantic coast from the
Para to 24° south latitude, and the Amazon valley up to
60° west longitude. They were largely exterminated by
the Portuguese, but their language became the means of
communicating with the Indians of Brazil and Paraguay.
98 The Races of Man
The eastern, or Guarani Tupis, formerly very numer-
ous in South Brazil, now fqrm a considerable proportion
of the population of ParaguaWind Missiones (Argentina).
Those of Paraguay have become largely hispanified.
Some forest tribes retain the real type, such for instance
as the Cainguas or Kaigguas, who are scattered about in
small groups over the southern jjart of the region men-
tioned. They are short (5ft. 3in.)7\ith a cephalic index
of 80-4, bronzed skin, lank or wavy hair, and prominent
cheekbones. They go almost nude ; fire is obtained by
friction; they are agriculturists, weavers and potters.
Other members of the eastern Tupi group are the
Tacunas and Jacunda of the lower Xingu, the Kamayuras
of the upper Xingu, the Mauhes between that river and
the Madeira, the Apiacas of the Tapajos, and the
Chiquitos and Chiriguanos of Bolivia ; the last two are
now largely hispanified.
The western Tupis comprise the Mundurukus of the
middle Tapajos, and the Yurunas and Aueto of the Xingu.
The Miuidur.ukus are head-hunters of extreme ferocity in
warfare ; the rank of chief is attained by the capture of
at least ten heads. Youths go through an initiation cere-
mony in the form of a glove-dance ; the bachelors live in
In addition to Caribs, Arawaks, Ges, and Tupis, there
are representatives of other ethnic groups to be met with
in Matto Grosso and south-eastern Bolivia. The more
important of these are the Karayas, of whom there are two
sections knowing nothing of each other, one in the Xingu
valley, the other in that of the Araguaya. They are of
medium height, and narrow head (cephalic index 73).
Distribution of Races and Peoples 99
They do not use hammocks, are good navigators, and the
women speak a different language from the men, appar-
ently an older form. The Trumai of the upper Xingu
are short, with medium heads (cephalic index 81-1),
retreating forehead and convex nose. The Bororos are
scattered from the upper Paraguay to the upper Parana.
They are tall, l*74m. (5ft. 8 Jin.), with a cephalic index
of 81-5. They are a purely hunting and collecting people,
who never practise agriculture, nor have they domestic
animals. They do not use canoes. The women wear a
broad tight belt and perineal band, the men a narrow
belt. They are very fond of feather decorations ; both
sexes pierce the lobe of the ear, and the men bore the
lower lip. The men live in a clubhouse, and do not settle
down and marry till they are about forty, when they live
in very poor huts. They sometimes capture women and
take them to the clubhouse. The married men arrange
the affairs of the community, and a chief commands in
war. The dead are temporarily buried, and later there
is a special funeral ceremony. The souls of the dead are
believed to enter the bodies of birds.
The Pampas of the South, with Tierra del Fnego.
This division comprises the great plain beyond 30°
south latitude, which passes from the rich pasturage of
Gran Ch'aco to Pampas, and then to the bare plateaus of
Patagonia. The inhabitants of the plain are nomadic
and pastoral in their way of life since the introduction of
the horse. Only hybridised descendants remain of the
ancient peoples who lived here and in Uruguay at the time
100 The Races of Man
of the Conquest, such as the Talhuets and Abipones,
who represent some of the old members of the
Guaycuru family. This family still survives in its pure
form in some Chaco tribes, such as the Tobas,
Matacos, and Payaguas ; others, such as the Lenguas,
Sanapanas, and Angaites, belong to the Ennema
linguistic family. South of the Chaco, in the Pampas
and the north Patagonian tableland, the Guaycurus of
the north, and the Patagonians of the south, have
been absorbed or modified by the Araucanians from
the west, and the Europeans from the east. New
tribes have thus arisen, such as the Puel-che from
Patagonians, and Araucanians with a Guaycuru strain,
and Gauchos from Guaycurus and Europeans. To
avoid confusion it must be noted that the term Puel-che
(east-men) was applied first to the pure Araucanians
of the east side of the Andes, and then to the
Pampeans, and is still used indiscriminately for the
pure Araucanians of the Argentine Republic, Pampeans,
and nomads generally as far south as the Rio
The Europeans gradually pushed the Puel-che and
Araucanians southward, the Pampeans migrating en
masse in 1881 beyond the Rio Negro, where they
mingled with some of the Patagonians and drove the
rest beyond the Rio Santa Cruz. Some two thousand
Patagonians, or Tehuel-che, now live between this river
and the Strait of Magellan. Those inland and the Onas
of Tierra del Fuego best preserve the Patagonian type.
They are very tall, l-73-l-83m. (5ft. Sin. or 6ft.), according
to different accounts, with a cephalic index of 85,
[Races of Man, p. 100.
Distribution of Races and Peoples 101
elongated face, slightly oblique eyes, prominent cheek
bones, black lank hair, and dark coppery complexion*
They subsist mainly on the flesh of the guanaco and
other wild animals ; horse-flesh is also used by some ; a
few wild vegetables are eaten, but nothing is cultivated*
They are a well-clothed people, not even the children go
nude ; silver ornaments are worn. Their dwellings are
leather tents or brushwood huts, and characteristic
weapons are lassos and bolas. They are divided into a
number of independent clans, each with its hereditary
chief with somewhat restricted power. They believe in
demons, over which medicine-men are supposed to have
power. The dead were till recently buried in a sitting
posture, and weapons were also put in the grave.
The Fuegians inhabit the south and west of Tierra del
Puego and the off-lying archipelagoes. They consist of
two tribes, the Yaligans and the Alakalufs, of whom
the former are probably the true aborigines and may be
taken as typical of the Fuegians. They are of low
stature, with a large head, angular face, short nose
depressed at root and wide at nostrils, large thick lips,
and small black eyes often obliquely set. Their food
consists mainly of mussels and animal food, but berries
are eaten in summer and roots in winter. They were
said formerly to eat their old women. They have no
kitchen utensils nor pottery. As clothing they wear a
small piece of skin over the shoulders, and the women
have in addition a very short narrow apron. Their
dwellings are flimsy huts, made of logs and branches.
Hunting is undertaken by the men and fishing by the
women. They make perishable bark canoes. Monogamy
102 The Races of Man
is the general rule. They do not recognise virtue, but
they do not practise vice. Modesty is strongly
developed ; compassion is almost unknown. They are
courageous, vain, and susceptible. Lying is no evil, but
the murderer is banned by all.
This Bibliography is intended merely as a guide to the
elementary student, and only those books are included
which have reference to my immediate object, as further
references to other books or to memoirs and papers will be
found in them. As this little book is designed to help the
beginner in ethnology, very few references are made to
works in other languages. The Journal of the Royal
Anthropological Institute is a mine of information, as are
the journals of kindred foreign societies. The numerous
books by travellers and missionaries, which deal with
special areas and peoples, should also be consulted.
THE GENERAL SUBJECT.
Deniker, J.— "The Races of Man," 1900.
Duckworth, W. L. H. — " Morphology and
Haddon, A. C.— "The Study of Man," 1898.
Keane, A. H.— " Ethnology," 1901 ; " Man : Past and
Present," 1905; "The World's Peoples," 1908.
Ratzel, P. —"The History of Mankind" (translation),
Reclus, J. J. E.— "The Earth and its Inhabitants"
Ripley, W. Z.— "The Races of Europe," 1900.
Topinard, P. — "Anthropology" (translation), 1890.
Tylor, E. B.—" Anthropology," 1895.
Wiedersheim, R. — "The Structure of Man " (trans-
Wood, J. G.— "The Natural History of Man."
Other books that should be consulted are : — " The
World's History," editor, Helmolt, H. F. (various
volumes); "Stanford's Compendium of Geography and
Travel " (various volumes) ; " The Living Races of
• Curr, E. M.— " The Australian Race," 1886-87.
Gennep, A. Van. — " Mythes et Legendes d'Australie :
etudes d'Ethnographie et de Sociologie," 1906.
Howitt, A. W. — "The Native Tribes of South-east
Mathew, J.—" Eaglehawk and Crow," 1899.
Roth, W. E.— " Bulletins of North Queensland
Smyth, R. B.— " The Aborigines of Victoria," 1878.
Spencer, B., and Gillen, F. J. — "The Native Tribes
of Central Australia," 1899; "The Northern
Tribes of Central Australia," 1904.
-Thomas, N. W.— " Natives of Australia," 1906;
" Kinship Organisation, etc., in Australia," 1906.
Papuans and Melanesians.
- Codrington, R. H.— " The Melanesians," 1891.
Guppy, H. B.— "The Solomon Islands," 1887.
- Haddon, A. C— " Head-hunters," 1901; "Reports
Cambridge Expedition to Torres Straits."
Parkinson, R. — " Dreissig Jahre in der Sudsee,"
Roth, H. L.— "The Aborigines of Tasmania," 1889.
Sande, G. A. J. van der — "Nova Guinea, III.
Ethnography and Anthropology," 1907.
Thomson, B.— " The Fijians," 1908.
Thomson, J. P.—" British New Guinea," 1892.
Williams, T. and Calvert, J. — " Fiji and the Fijians,"
Ellis, W. — "Polynesian Researches, etc.," 1831.
Fornander, A.—" An Account of the Polynesian
Gill, W. W. — "Myths and Songs from the South
* Grey, G.— " Polynesian Mythology," 1853.
Lesson, P. A.—" Les Polynesiens," 1880-84,
Mariner, W. — "An Account of the Natives of the
Tonga Islands," 1818.
Smith, S. P.—" Hawaiki," 1904.
Taylor, R.— " Te Ika a Maui," 1855.
Turner, G. — " Nineteen Years in Polynesia," 1861 ;
Johnston, H. H.— "The Uganda Protectorate," 1902.
Stanley, H. M.— " In Darkest Africa," 1890.
Bushmen and Hottentots.
• Stow, G. W. — " The Native Races of South Africa,"
Theal, C. M'C. — " History and Ethnography of
South Africa," 1907.
Callaway, H.—" Nursery Tales, etc,," 1868; "The
Religious System of the Amazulu," 1870.
» Casati, G. — "Ten Years in Equatoria" (translation),
Cassalis, E. — "The Basutos " (translation), 1861.
Johnston, H. H. (I.e.)
Junod, H. A.— "Les Ba-Ronga," 1898.
Kidd, D.— "The Essential Kafir," 1904; "Savage
Childhood," 1906; "Kafir Socialism." 1908.
Macdonald, D.— " Africana," 1882.
Stow (I.e.), Theal (I.e.)
Werner, A. — "The Natives of British Central
Dennett, R. E.— " At the Back of the Black Man's
Ellis, A. B.— "The Tshi-speaking Peoples," 1887;
"The Ewe," 1890; "The Yoruba," 1894.
Johnston, H. H.— " Liberia," 1906.
Kingsley, M.— "West African Studies," 1901.
Leonard, A. G.— " The Lower Niger," 1906.
Nassau, R. H.— " Fetichism in West Africa," 1904.
Various African Tribes.
Dowd, J.— "The Negro Races," 1907.
Fritsch, G. — " Die Eingeborenen Sud-Afrika's,"
Hartmann, R.— " Die Nigritier," 1876.
Hollis, A. C— "The Masai," 1905; "The Nandi,"
Johnston— "The Uganda Protectorate," 1902.
Klunzinger, C. B. — "Upper Egypt" (translation),
Preville, A.de— " Les Societes Africaines," 1894.
Beddoe, J.— "The Races of Britain," 1885.
Borlase, W. C— " The Dolmens of Ireland," 1897.
Deniker, J. — " Les Races de l'Europe, I. l'lndice
cephalique," 1899; Association Francaise Avance,
Fouillee, A. — " Esquisse psychologique des Peuples
Holmes, T. Rice— "Ancient Britain," 1907.
Mackinder, H. J. — "The Racial and Historical Geo-
graphy of Britain," 1902.
Rhys, J.— "Celtic Britain," 1904.
Ripley, W. Z.— "The Races of Europe," 1900.
Sergi, G.— "The Mediterranean Race," 1901.
Hogarth, D. G.— "The Nearer East," 1902.
Jackson, P. G.— "The Great Frozen Land," 1895.
Little, A.—" The Farther East."
Stanford's " Compendium of Geography."
"The Jesup North Pacific Expedition." Mem. Am.
Mus. Nat. Hist. Various memoirs by Bogoras, W.,
and Jochelson, W.
Biddulph, J.— "Tribes of the Hindu-Kush," 1880.
Crooke, W. — " The Tribes and Castes of the North-west
Provinces and Oudh," 1896; "The North-west
Provinces of India," 1897; "Natives of India." 1907.
Dalton, E.T. — " Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal," 1872.
Dubois, J. A. — " Hindu Manners, etc.," (translation),
Gait, E. A.— "A History of Assam," 1906.
Gurdon, P. R. T.— "The Khasis," 1907.
Hodson, T. C— " The Meitheis," 1908.
Holdich, T. A.—" India," 1904.
Hunter, W.W.— "A Statistical Account of Assam," 1879.
Kennedy, J. — "The Mediaeval History of Northern
India"; cf. "The Indian Empire," vol. II.
Man, E. H. — "Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Andaman
Islands," Journal Anth. Inst. XII., 1882.
Marshall, W. E. — " A Phrenologist among the Todas,"
Oppert, G.— "The Original Inhabitants of India," 1894.
Powell, B. H. Baden — "The Indian Village Community,"
Risley, H. H. — "The Tribes and Castes of Bengal, etc.,"
1892; "The People of India," 1908.
Rivers, W. H. R.— "The Todas," 1906.
Robertson, G. S. — "The Kafirs of the Hindu-Kush,'
Smith, V. A.— "The early History of India," 1908.
Stack, E.— "The Mikirs," 1908.
Thurston, E. — " Ethnographical Notes in Southern
Ujfalvy, C. de. — " Les Aryens au Nord et au Slid de
See also "The Indian Empire" (4 vols.), being the
introduction to "The Imperial Gazetteer of India," new
edition, 1907; "Census of India," "Bulletin of the
Madras Museum," "Journal of the Asiatic Society of
The Malay Peninsula and Burma.
Forbes, C. J. F. S. — " British Burma and its People,"
Hall, H. P.— " The Soul of a People," 1898; "A People
at School," 1906.
Martin, R. — •« Die Inlandstamme der Malayischen
Moszkowski, M.— " Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, XL," 1908,
pp. 229, 634.
Scott, J. G.— "The Burman," 1896; " Burma," 1906.
Skeat, W. W.— " Malay Magic," 1900; and Blagden,
C. O. — " Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula,"
Swettenham, F. A.—" The Real Malay," 1900.
Wilkinson, R. J.— "The Peninsula Malays," 1906.
Furness, W. H. — "The Home Life of the Borneo Head-
Haddon, A. C— " Head-Hunters," 1901.
Nieuwenhuis, A. W. — " Quer durch Borneo," 1904-07.
Roth, H. L.— "The Natives of Sarawak," 1896.
China and Japan.
Bard, E.— "The Chinese at Home."
Batchelor, G.— "The Ainu of Japan," 1892.
Brinkley, F. — " Japan : Its History, Arts, and Literature "
(Oriental Series), 1901.
Carles, W.— " Life in Corea," 1888.
Chamberlain, B. — "Things Japanese," 1891.
Hearn, Lafcadio — "Japan: an Interpretation," 1904.
" History of the Empire of Japan " (various authors),
Lacouperie, Terrien de — "The Languages of China
before the Chinese," 1887 ; "Western origin of the
early Chinese civilization," 1894.
Okakura, Y. — " The Japanese Spirit," 1905.
Richthofen— " China " vol. I, 1875.
Rockhill, W. W.— " Notes on the Ethnology of Tibet,"
Smith, A. H.— "Chinese Characteristics," 1895.
Bancroft, H. H. — "The Native Races of the Pacific
Boas, P. — " Social Organization of the Kwakiutl," U.S.
Nat. Mus. Report, 1895; " North-western Tribes of
Canada," Brit. Assoc. Report, 1898.
Boyle, D. (and others). — " Ethnography of Canada,"
Arch. Report, Ontario, 1905 (with many references
Brinton, D. G.— " The American Race," 1891.
Farrand, L. — " Basis of American History," 1904.
Hill-Tout, C— " British North America," 1907.
Hodge, P. W. (and others). — " Handbook of American
Indians north of Mexico," 1907.
Maclean, J. — "The Indians." 1892; "Canadian Savage
Nansen, P.—" Eskimo Life," 1893.
Rink, H. J. — " Tales and Traditions of the Eskimo,"
Whymper, P.—" Travels in Alaska," 1868.
" The American Anthropologist " and " The Journal of
" The Annual Report of the Director of the Bureau of
American Ethnology," 1881, etc.
N The Jesup North Pacific Expedition," Mem. Am. Mus.
Nat. Hist., various vols.
University of California Publications in American
Archaeology and Ethnology.
Field Columbian Museum (Field Museum of Natural
History) Publications, Anthropological Series,
CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA.
Brett, W. H.— "The Indian Tribes of Guiana," 1868.
Dance, C. D. — "Chapters from a Guianese Log-Book,"
Gadow, H.— "Through Southern Mexico," 1908.
Hyades, P., et Deniker, J. — " Mission scientiflque du
Cap Horn," 1891.
Im Thurn, E. F. — "Among the Indians of Guiana," 1883.
Keane, A. H. — " Central America and the West Indies,"
1901 ; " South America," 1901.
Lumholtz, C. — " Unknown Mexico," 1902.
Payne, E. J. — " History of the New World called
America," 1892, 1899.
Steinen, K. von den. — " Unter den Naturvolkern
Animal helper: An animal seen by a young man in a
trance, which was supposed to be a manifestation of
spiritual power, and thereafter helped him through-
Animatism (Marett) is a stage antecedent to animism, in
which even material objects are endowed with life,
or are regarded as living because of their own
proper powers, or because they are self-power.
Animism is the conception of a spirit energising objects,
more especially of " souls of individual creatures,
capable of continued existence after death or the
destruction of the body," and of "other spirits,
upward to the rank of powerful deities " (Tylor).
Anthropophagy : Man-eating, cannibalism.
Brachy cephalic : Broad-headed, having a cranial or
cephalic index exceeding 80.
Caste : A section of a larger community which stands in
definite relations to other similar sections, and
which usually has an occupational basis and a
definite rule of endogamy.
Caucasic : A term applied by some authors to Europeans
and to other peoples possessing more or less similar
Cephalic index : The ratio of the breadth to the length in
the head of a living subject, the length being taken
Cheloid : A raised scar.
Clan : See sept.
Class : (Australia) A division of a phratry.
Classificatory system of relationship : A system of relation
ship under which relatives are grouped mainl)
according to age-status and sex; for example, 2
mother's sister, mother's brother's wife, father's
brother's wife, and other women of that generation
are called by the same term as the actual mother.
Communal houses : Large houses shared by a community
such as a totem-sept or village group.
Couvade : A widely spread custom, which requires the
father to rest or be in seclusion immediately aftet
the birth of a child. This custom appears to be the
logical outcome of a more or less rigid series of food
or action taboos which are enforced previous to the
birth of the child, and which may be continued
Cranial index : The ratio of the breadth to the length in
the skull, the length being taken as 100.
Cymotrichi : People having wavy or curly hair. Adj.
Dolichocephalic : Narrow-headed, having a cranial or
cephalic index below 75.
Endogamy : The obligation to marry within the group.
Exogamy : The obligation to marry outside the group.
Family : This term should be limited to the group of
parents and children. The " extended family " is a
group of persona descended from the same grand-
father or grandmother, or more distant progenitor
(actual, and not mythical, as is often the case in the
sept). Occasionally, the extended family and the
sept may correspond with one another.
Father-right: A state of society in which descent is
reckoned through the father ; the wife, on marriage,
usually goes to live permanently with the husband's
family or group; authority in the family is in the
'Fetish : Any object credited with mysterious powers
owing to its having personality and will, or to its
being, even temporarily, the representative or habita-
tion of a spirit or deity.
Frizzly : See ulotrichous.
Leiotrichi : People having straight, lank hair. Adj.
Leptorrhine : Having a nose narrow at the wings.
Local group : A community, totemic or otherwise, living
in an area over which it has collecting, hunting,
and other rights.
Mana : Described on p. 27.
Manitou : Described on p. 87.
Matrilineal: Where descent is reckoned through the
Mesaticephalic : Medium-headed, having a cranial or
cephalic index between 75 and 80.
Mesorrhine : With a nose of moderate breadth at the
Moiety : When there are only two phratries, and they are
exogamous, so that a member of one division must
marry a member of the other, the divisions are
sometimes termed moieties.
Mongolian eye : The eye is typically oblique, and shaped
like a scalene triangle ; there is also a puffiness of
the upper eyelid, which turns down at the inner
angle of the narrowed eye, and instead of being free,
as in the ordinary eye, is folded towards the eyeball,
forming a fixed fold in front of the movable ciliary
edge ; this last becomes invisible, and the eyelashes
are scarcely seen ; also towards the inner angle of
the eye, the eyelid forms a fold covering more or
less of the caruncula, and may extend below it.
Monogamy : The marriage of one male with one female.
Mother-right: A state of society in which there are two
or all of the three conditions : (1) descent is reckoned
through the mother; (2) on marriage the husband
goes to live with the wife; (3) authority in the
family is in the hands of the mother, the maternal
uncles, or the mother's relatives in general.
Nation : A complex group which may consist of various
tribes or groups, speaking different languages, but
united under a common government for external
affairs. The constituents of a nation usually,
however, speak the same language. Cf. p. 6.
Orthognathous: Having no projection of the lower part
of the face.
Patrilineal : Where descent is reckoned through the
People : A community inhabiting any given area in-
dependent of race. Cf. p. 6.
Perineal band: A band passing between the legs, fastened
to a string round the hips.
Phratry : A division of a tribe or local community which
usually includes two or more exogamous septs or
Platyrrhine: Having a nose broad at the wings.
Polyandry : Marriage of one female with two or more
Polygamy: Combined polygynous and polyandrous
Polygyny : Marriage of one male with two or more females.
Prognathous: Having the lower part of the face projecting.
Pueblo: Village; for Pueblo Indians, see p. 88.
Pygmy : Applied to those people whose average stature
falls below l-5m. (4ft. 11 in.).
Race : A main division of mankind, the members of which
have important physical characters in common.
Sachem: A "peace-chief" who regulates the ordinary
affairs of the community, but does not lead a
Scarification : Marking the skin with definite scars, a
common practice of dark-skinned people, such scars
being lighter in colour than the original skin.
Sept\ The smallest exogamous section of a tribe or local
Shamanism : A cult based on conceptions similar to those
of fetishism, the sorcerer, or animistic priest, being
frequently termed a Shaman.
Steatopygia : A large development of fatty tissue in the
Sulia : Described on p. 83 ; also cf. Manitou,
Supernatural helpers : cf. Animal helpers.
Taboo (tabu) : A Polynesian word implying separated or
set apart either as forbidden or as sacred ; placed
under ban or prohibition ; consecrated either to
avoidance or to special use or regard. Cf. p. 30.
Tattooing (tatuing) : Puncturing designs in the skin by
means of a sharp pointed instrument which drives
pigment below the surface of the skin.
Territorial exogamous group : A group of people who
must marry out of their district.
Totemism: A mystical connection uniting certain individ-
uals with a class of natural objects, usually all the
members of a species of animal or a plant ; sometimes
the totem is an inanimate body. Such group is best
termed a totem-sept, but it has more frequently been
termed a totem-clan, totem-kin, or totem-gens.
Frequently there is practical reciprocity between the '
totem and the human members of the totem-sept.
All individuals having the same totem, even when
belonging to different local communities or tribes,
are regarded as brethren; thus all septs, of whatever
locality, having the same totem are virtually one
sept. Typically each totem-sept is exogamous.
Frequently totem-septs are grouped into phratries.
Often the members of a totem-sept are supposed to
influence the totem for the good of the community,
and they may not injure or eat it under ordinary cir-
cumstances; there is thus a reciprocity between
them. All human beings having the same totem
must help and never injure one another.
Tribe : A group of a simple kind occupying a circum-
scribed area, having a common language, common
government, and a common action in warfare. Cf.
Ulotrichi : People having hair with numerous, close, curly,
often interlocking spirals. Adj. ulotrichous,
Wakanda : Described on p. 86.
The darker figures are the chief references.
Admiralty Islands ..
1 .E*£ISL ••• ••
• • • v/D
Equatorial 10, 11, 32, 34
31, 37. 38
Aham (Hindu Assamese) 65, 66
Ahirs ... ... ... ... 59
Ainus 8, 15 (pi. iv), 16, 49, 50
Aket (Orang Raket) ... 73
Aleutian Islanders 80
Algonquians 85, 87
Alpine Race 8, 15,40,41, 42,
43, 44, 45, 46, 51, 61
Amazon ... 90, 92, 93, 94
Amazonians ... 92, 93-95 97
America ... 16, 79-102
Central South 19, 92
American Indians ... 79-102
— of the Amazon & Orinoco
with Guiana 90, 92, 93-96
American Indians of
Eastern and Southern
Brazil ... 90, 92, 97-99
— of the Eastern Wood-
lands ... 79, 87-88
— of the Great Plains
— of the Lower
— of the Northern
— of the Northern
— of the Pampas with Tierra
del Fuego 90, 99-102
— of the South-west and
Mexico ... 79, 88-90
Amerinds, Central 8, 19, 89-90
8, 19, 79, 85-88
8, 19, 79, 81-85
8, 19, 90-102
• • •
... 8, 16, 43
6, 7, 9, 71-72
• • ■
< • •
90, 93, 97, 100
• • •
• • •
• • •
... ... oo
• • ■
- > •
■ • • . • • *j*y
■ • •
(pi. iii), 34, 51
Arawaks 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98
Argentina ... 91, 98, 100
Armenian 14, 16
Aryan invaders of North-
ern India (Aryas)
3, 51, 56, 59
Aryans 3, 49, 50, 51, 56, 59
— Minor ...
— West ...
" Asiatic Greeks "
Atlanto-AIeditcrranean Race 42
Australians 7, 13, 22
Bah i ma
Balz, Dr. E.
16, 17, 52
• • • %J*J
11, 13, 20
24 (pi. vi)
- Bantu 7, 10, 11, 32, 33, 38-39
- Basques 42
• •• ••• ± d
• • • • • • *T — ^
60, 61, 64, 65
Brazil, Indians of
British Isles -
2, 14, 76-78
• >•• yy
90, 92, 93, 94, 97-99
6, 7, 10, 31, 32, 33, 34-35
• • • • %JkJ
. 67, 68-70
68, 69, 70
California 79, 84
Canarcse 60, 61
Cape Colony 32, 38
Caribs 92, 93-94, 95, 96, 98
— Black 96
— Yellow 96
Carinya (true Carib) ... 95
" Caucasic features
Chinese S, 18 (pi.
Codrington, Dr. R
Cordilleras see An
Crooke, W. ...
.. 13, 51, 78
.. 8, 16, 43
6, 12, 62, 63
v), 50, 51, 78
16, 54, 55
• ■ • • • DO
• • * • • y o
H. ... 28
Dasyus 3, 56
Dayaks, Land 76
Sea (I ban) 77, 78
Deccan ... 12, 13, 56, 60, 62
Deniker, Dr. J.
15, 18, 19, 42, 43, 44, 46, 90, 91
Dinaric Race... 16,43. 46
Dolichocephalic peoples of
Northern Asia 49
• •• ••• ••• *I70
3, 7, 13, 15, 51, 60,
61, 62, 63, 64, 65
• •• ■•• Ml Ol
••• ••• ••• / o
East Brazilians 92
East Indian Archipelago
14, 18, 21, 51, 76
Easter Island ... 14, 129
Egyptians, Ancient and
... 2, 13, 15
2, 8, 18-19, 79,
80-81 (pi. ix)
16, 18, 40-47
■ • • • • • *J —
Farrand, Prof. L 87
Fiji 12, 20, 26
Finno-Ugrian 43, 45, 49, 50
Finns 18, 45
Flower, Sir W. H 70
France 15, 41-42
France, prehistoric cave-
dwellers in lCn.
Fulah 13, 33
Furness, Dr. W. H. ... 67
Further India ... 14, 18
vJv_o • ■ • • « •
Gran Chaco ...
Guiana, Indians of
• • • i ' . '
93, 97, 98
94, 95, 97
7, 10, 11, 13 ;
Herders on the Steppes
on the Tundra
Himalayas ... 15
X X \J ••• ••• •••
7, 10-11,31, 32,
, 51, 56
• • • r>. /
. . . 5o
ban (Sea Dayaks)
— South ...
• •• ••• 1 \J
51, 52, 56-65
... 8, 13-14
• • • • • • \J\j
... 18, 68, 70
4, 18, 21, 50,
, 65-70, 74-78
• •• ••• / o
51, 65, 68, 76
■ •■ ••• ~t •■)
■•• ••• ii
• • * • ■ * 0~t
• • • ••• *T O
• • •
• • •
• • •
• • «
• • •
- - •
• • •
• • •
... ^ » —
. . .
• • •
• ■ •
Jungle Tribes of the Dcccan
• • •
• • •
* • •
■ • •
• • •
• • •
• • •
• • •
• • •
• • • •
5 • • •
• • • •
• • • •
• • • •
• • • •
• • . B » • X/O
• • • • i
• • • •
• • • •
• • • •
• • • •
, 72, 74-76, 78
igo ... 67
3, 51, 70, 75
Malays 18, 72,
74-76, 77, 78
• • • •
" — Savage" (Jakun) ... 74
• • • •
• • • • i
... 16, 17, 49
■ •• • «
* • • • •
• • • (i
■-Maori, pi. vii, p
• • • •
• •• •■• *_' A
• * • •!
• ■•• • 1
• • • •
• • •
. 8, 17,50
• • I ■
• • • •
..65, 66, 67
Kunbi or Ku
• • • •
• • • •
8, 15, 40, 41,
42, 46, 47, 52
• • • • i
11, 20, 2). 29
Melanesian Archipelago 20, 21
"Melanesians ... 6,
7, 12,20, 21,
« • • •
• ... 16
L, 45, 52, 55
;o ... 68
• « • •
. 8, 16-19
79, 84, 89-90
• • • •
• • • •
Letto -Lithuanians .
• • • •
• • • •
Mon 68, 69
Mongolo-Draviuians ... 65
Mongols 8, 17, 41, 44, 48, 70
Southern ... 18, 50
Morgan, L. H.
56, 65, 66-67
• • * • • * *y\J
• . . ... Oo
6, 7, 9-10, 32, 34 (pi. viii)
-Negritoes of Asia 7, 9, 20, 21,
51, 70-73, 74, 78
of the Philippines
(Aetas) 9, 73
2, 4, 6, 7, 11, 13, 32,
33, 36-38, 70, 96
Neolithic inhabitants of
11,12, 20, 21, 2 1, 25, 26, 27
Nordics, sec T\'orthern Race
Northern Race 8, 15, 40, 41,
42, 43, 44, 46, 49
Niam Niam ,
Nile Valley ,
25, 26, 27
Orang Bukit ...
— Laut ...
— Raket (Meet).
.. . 89
Papuans 6, 7, 11
• •• ••• Iks
8, 15, 16,48
... ... 68
90, 99, 100
(pl.ii), 12, 13.
20, 21, 24-28
Parercans 18, 50, cf. Indo
HPatagonians ... 8, 19, 100-101
Pay ag uas
• •* ••• 10
... 9, 73, 78
20, 21, 28, 29
Plata, Rio de la
8, 14, 21, 22 (pi. vii), 28-30
22-24, 51, 62, 74, 78
Pre -Semitic ... ... ... 52
Proto- Finns ... ... ... 50
8,'l4, 18, 21, 51, 68, 76
Pueblo Indians 88-89, 90
Puel-che 92, 100
Punan 2, 76
Punjab ... 56, 57, 58, 59
Pygmies 3, 6, 7, 9-10, 20, 21,
32, 34, 51, 70-73, 74, 78
Sarasin, Dr. F.
Rajputana 58, 59
Rajputs 14, 58-59, 60, 61, 62
Risley, Sir H. H.
Rivers, Dr. W. H
• • • • • • 0"x
• • • O 1 * 0"i
... . ... 96
7, 12-13, 51, 74
... ... 83
18, -15, 54, 55
■ . ■ . • • 0"x
... 58, 60, 65
... 18, 44-45
• « • ♦ » » ri Jfc
... ... ... O /
... ... .,. 68
... 7, 9, 72-73, 74
2, 8, 13, 14, 15. 34, 5 2
65, 66, 63, 70
Smith, Vincent A
-Sudanese, Eastern, Western 11
Sudras 59, 63
Sumatra 9, 12, 51, 73, 75, 78
Sumers ... 52
Sweden 40, 41
... 85-86, 87
• •• • • • D*J
24, 25, 27, 28
• •■ ••• oo
11, 32, 34
i at ... ...
Tierra del Fuego 90
Tlingit • ...
Tungus 8, 16, 17, 48, 49, 54
Tupi (Tupi-Guarani) 92, 93, 98
Tupis, Eastern or Guarani 98
— Western 98
Turki 8, 17, 41, 4% 46, 48, 49,
50, 51, 52, 57
Turkistan, Chinese... 17, 50
Russian ... ... 17
.. . 98
66, 68, 70
• • . oZ
8, 18, 51
65, 68, 69
99, 100, 101
7, 13, 78
Turks ... 46.
Uganda 31, 32,
Ugrians 8, 17-18, 41, 45,
Uigurs (Uighurs) ... 17,
Ulotrichi 6, 7, 9-
United Provinces (India) ...
Ural-Altaians8, 15, 16-18,41,
45,46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52-55,
-Veddas ... 7, 12, 62,
Wilkinson, R. J.
ALllU ... ... ... OC>,
• • • -JO j
• • • i *J j
93, 94, 98,
MILNER AND CO., POINTERS, HALIFAX,
14 DAY USE
RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED
This book is due on the last date stamped below, or
on the date to which renewed.
Renewed books are subject to immediate recall.
® * MAR 1 1 1867 ?
~2M~ e 1968 69
KET'D TO AKT-
D b C 17 1 9 C5
■ ^ ■
HAY 2 5C/-8PM
DEC17 198 6
University of California
«- ■> i